Early canada
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EARLY CANADA. DAY 5-7. NEW FRANCE. NWP FAILURE…RICHES OF SAGUENAY FAILURE, CONTACT EXPLOITATION ONLY (FISH, TIMBER) SMALL INFORMAL FUR TRADE LATE 16 TH CENTURY FELT TOP HAT (CASTOR CANADENSIS) RUSH TO OBTAIN FURS HUDSON BAY COMPANY BY BR, FRENCH LOOK TO SETTLEMENTS. ST CROIX ISLAND.

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EARLY CANADA

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Early canada

EARLY CANADA

DAY 5-7


New france

NEW FRANCE

  • NWP FAILURE…RICHES OF SAGUENAY FAILURE, CONTACT EXPLOITATION ONLY (FISH, TIMBER)

  • SMALL INFORMAL FUR TRADE

  • LATE 16TH CENTURY FELT TOP HAT (CASTOR CANADENSIS)

  • RUSH TO OBTAIN FURS

  • HUDSON BAY COMPANY BY BR, FRENCH LOOK TO SETTLEMENTS


St croix island

ST CROIX ISLAND

  • 1603 FR CROWN NEGS MONOPOLY FOR COLONY RIGHTS

  • PIERRE DU GUA SIEUR DE MONTS FOUNDS ST CROIX 1604 (125 SETTLERS)

  • IN EXCHANGE FOR FUR MONOPOLY 100 PEOPLE PER YEAR FOR 10 YRS

  • ISLAND CHOSEN AS DEFENDABLE, USE TO SHIP TO FRANCE

  • LITTLE FOOD, WATER, SHELTER ETC…FAILS 36 DIE


Port royal

PORT ROYAL

  • 1605 SURVIVORS MOVE TO PORT ROYAL, ACROSS THE BAY OF FUNDY

  • THIS IS FOUNDING OF ACADIA

  • MICMAC WERE TRADING PARTNERS

  • COURT INTRIGUE IN FRANCE (FOR MONOPOLY) LEADS TO RECALL OF SIEUR DE MONTS

  • LEAVES IN 1607 TAKES COLONY WITH HIM

  • ABANDONED UNTIL 1609 (MICMAC MOVE IN)

  • RE-FOUNDED IN 1609 BUT EMPHASIS ON NEW FRANCE (QUE)


Loss and restoration

LOSS AND RESTORATION

  • BR COLONIES TO SOUTH GROWING STRONG, POPULOUS. NOT ACADIA

  • THUS ACADIA’S HISTORY LOSS RESTORATION

  • 1613 ACADIA TAKEN BY VIRGINIAN MILITIA (FR SETTLERS STRUGGLE ON UNDER BRITISH)

  • BR NOW TRY TO SETTLE AREA

  • 1621 KING JAMES GIVES TO SON AS FEUDAL TERRITORY. NAMED NEW SCOTLAND


Early canada

  • ENGLISH SETTLEMENTS PROVED JUST AS FUTILE MORE INTERESTED IN OTHER AREAS

  • IN 1632 ALL OF ACADIA WAS GIVEN BACK TO FRANCE IN TREATY (BR TOOK CARIBBEAN ISLAND)

  • WHILE BR OWNED ANNAPOLIS ROYAL, FRENCH RESETTLED ALONG ST JOHN RIVER

  • AFTER THE RESTORATION COMPETITION BETWEEN PORT ROYAL AND THE COLONY IN ST JOHN ALSO HURT THE FRENCH ABILITY TO STRENGTHEN THEIR COLONY

  • IN 1654 FRANCE AGAIN LOSES ACADIA TO ENGLAND

  • AGAIN THE ACADIANS SIMPLY PERSEVERE UNDER THE RULE OF THE ENGLISH

  • IN 1668 THE ENGLISH GIVE ACADIA BACK TO FRANCE


Early canada

  • THIS PROCESS CONTINUES AS ACADIA IS LOST IN 1690 AND RETURNED IN 1697

  • ACADIA FALLS FOR THE LAST TIME IN 1710 WHERE THE FRENCH GIVE UP ALL CLAIMS IN ACADIA. THEY HOWEVER REFER ONLY TO NOVA SCOTIA’S PORTION AND STILL HAVE CLAIMS IN NEW BRUNSWICK

  • THIS WILL HELP LEAD TO WAR IN THE MID 1700s

  • AFTER THE FALL OF THE NOVA SCOTIA THE BRITISH THE GOVERNOR CHARLES LAWRENCE DECIDED TO ELIMINATE THE ACADIANS AS A POSSIBLE THREAT

  • ALL ACADIANS WERE TO LEAVE NOVA SCOTIA UNLESS THE TOOK AN OATH TO ENGLAND THAT INCLUDED BEARING ARMS IN CASE OF WAR

  • MOST REFUSED AND THE ENGLISH LOOKED THE OTHER WAY RATHER THAN SEE THE ACADIAN SETTLERS LEAVE THE AREA AS THEY WERE NEEDED AS FARMERS


Early canada

  • THE REASON THE ACADIANS REFUSED IS MOSTLY DUE TO THE LACK OF A GUARANTEE OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM AND NOT THE OATH ITSELF

  • THEY WOULD LIKELY HAVE REMAINED NEUTRAL IN HOSTILITIES SINCE FEW HAD CLOSE TIES TO FRANCE

  • BY THE 1750s HOWEVER WAR WITH FRANCE WAS IMMINENT

  • THE OATH WAS MODIFIED TO ELIMINATE ANY POSSIBLE MILITARY SERVICE, BUT STILL THE ACADIANS REFUSED ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS

  • THEN WHEN WAR BROKE OUT IN 1755, AND FORT BEAUSEJOUR WAS FOUND TO HAVE ACADIAN DEFENDERS, LAWRENCE BEGAN THE EXPULSION

  • IN ALL 6,000-10,000 ACADIANS WERE DEPORTED FROM NOVA SCOTIA AND NEW BRUNSWICK


Early canada

  • MANY DIED, AND FAMILIES WERE OFTEN SPLIT UP

  • OVER TIME MANY RETURNED SECRETLY OR MANAGED TO AVOID DEPORTATION BY HIDING

  • THEIR PERSEVERANCE DESPITE FRENCH APATHY, AND ENGLISH PERSECUTION TO MAINTAIN A CULTURE IS COMMENDABLE, AND TO THIS DAY THE CELEBRATION OF ACADIAN CULTURE IS VERY IMPORTANT TO THE REGION

  • 2004 SAW THE WORLD ACADIAN CONGRESS WHERE ACADIANS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD RETURNED TO THE HOME OF THEIR ANCESTORS

  • WERE TO BE HELD BIANNUALLY AFTER THAT BUT KATRINA INTERFERED.


New france1

NEW FRANCE

  • AFTER CARTIER HAD TRAVELED DOWN THE ST LAWRENCE TO MONTREAL AND QUEBEC VARIOUS PEOPLE HAD BEEN GIVEN THE TASK OF SETTLING THE AREA… ALL FAILED

  • 1608 THAT SOME SEMBLANCE OF A PERMANENT SETTLEMENT FOUNDED IN QUEBEC BY SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN THE KING’S GEOGRAPHER FROM ACADIA AND SIEUR DE MONTS

  • CHAMPLAIN GIVEN FUR TRADE. WAS TO USE PROFITS TO MAKE A SOLID COLONY

  • HE USED THE HURON AS MIDDLEMEN FOR HIS FUR EMPIRE

  • THE HURON WOULD TRAVEL THE INTERIOR COLLECTING FURS AND RETURN WITH THEM TO QUEBEC

  • THIS LED THE FRENCH INTO CONFLICT WITH THE IROQUOIS CONFEDERACY A TRADITIONAL ENEMY OF THE HURON


Early canada

  • TO PROTECT HIS SUPPLY OF FUR, CHAMPLAIN HELPED THE HURON ATTACK AND DEFEAT A FORCE OF IROQUOIS

  • IN RETALIATION THE IROQUOIS THEN ATTACK HURONIA AND VIRTUALLY WIPE IT OUT

  • THIS NOW LEADS THE FRENCH WITHOUT THEIR PROVIDER OF FURS.. COURIERS DE BOIS AND METIS

  • MEANWHILE THE ENGLISH TOO WERE MAKING CLAIMS ON THE FURS OF THE INTERIOR OF CANADA THROUGH THEIR HUDSON’S BAY ROUTE

  • TENSION BTW TWO ENEMIES GROW (WAR IN ACADIA)


Early canada

  • DESPITE HIS SUCCESS WITH THE FUR TRADE QUEBEC AS A COLONY WAS NOT GROWING

  • PEOPLE WHO DID ARRIVE DID NOT WANT TO FARM, THEY WANTED TO TRADE IN FUR

  • IN ONE GOOD YEAR, THE FRENCH COULD OFTEN MAKE MORE MONEY THAT A DECADE OF FARMING

  • IN THREE OR FOUR A MAN COULD RETIRE WEALTHY

  • THUS AS PEOPLE CAME OVER AS SETTLERS THEY OFTEN DISAPPEARED INTO THE INTERIOR LOOKING FOR FURS OF THEIR OWN

  • AS A RESULT BY 1627 THE POPULATION OF QUEBEC WAS ONLY 65

  • NOW THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT TRIED SOMETHING NEW


Early canada

  • A GROUP KNOWN AS THE COMPANY OF ONE HUNDRED ASSOCIATES WAS GIVEN A FEUDAL HOLDING SYSTEM OF LAND, IN EXCHANGE FOR BRINGING OUT 300 SETTLERS A YEAR

  • THIS SYSTEM ALSO FAILED AS 20 YRS LATER THE POPULATION WAS ONLY 400

  • IN 1645 THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT OF LOUIS XIV DECIDED TO TAKE MATTERS INTO THEIR OWN HAND AND A ROYAL COLONY WAS ESTABLISHED

  • IN 1665 JEAN TALON WAS MADE THE INTENDENT OF NEW FRANCE… HE WAS MORE SUCCESSFUL

  • WHILE HE TOO HAD TROUBLE BRINGING PEOPLE FROM FRANCE, SO HE ENCOURAGED EX SOLDIERS HERE TO STAY WITH LARGE LAND GRANTS

  • HE ALSO BROUGHT OVER WOMEN OF MARRIAGEABLE AGE TO CREATE A MORE HOSPITABLE ENVIRONMENT FOR MALES


Early canada

  • HE ALSO PAID CASH BONUSES FOR LARGE FAMILIES, SO HE ATTEMPTED THE FIRST BREEDING PROGRAM TO RAISE THE POPULATION

  • IN JUST 7 YRS HIS EFFORTS HAD BROUGHT THE POPULATION OF QUEBEC UP TO OVER 7,000

  • HIS SUCCESSORS WERE NOT NEARLY AS SUCCESSFUL

  • BY 1678 IMMIGRATION INTO QUEBEC FROM FRANCE VIRTUALLY ENDED AND THE LIFE OF THE QUEBEC HABITANT BECAME INCREASINGLY ALOOF FROM FRANCE

  • FROM THIS POINT ON MOST FRENCH IN NEW FRANCE WERE BORN HERE

  • BY THE FALL OF QUEBEC THIS GROUP NUMBERED OVER 60,000 ALMOST ALL QUEBECOIS NOT FRENCH


Life in new france

LIFE IN NEW FRANCE

  • SEIGNEURIALISM WAS THE PRACTICE OF LAND DISTRIBUTION

  • VERY SIMILAR TO FEUDALISM OF EUROPE

  • CROWN GAVE LARGE PIECE OF LAND TO SEIGNEUR WHO WAS TO SETTLE THE LAND AND DEFEND IT

  • HE GIVES SMALLER PIECES TO OTHERS CALLED CENSITAIRES TO SETTLE THE LAND

  • THE CENSITAIRES PAY YEARLY RENTS AND SERVICES TO THE SEIGNEUR INCLUDING WILLINGNESS TO DEFEND THE LAND

  • THE SEIGNEUR ALSO HAD TO PROVIDE A MILL, COURT AND OTHER NECESSITIES FOR THE CENSITAIRES TO USE FOR A FEE

  • ALL PARCELS OF LAND HAD RIVER FRONTAGE FOR TRANSPORTATION AND IRRIGATION. LEADS TO VERY LONG THIN FARMS


Early canada

  • THE DIVISION OF STATUS WAS NOT AS HIGH AS IN FRANCE, BUT WITH THIS TYPE OF LAND GRANTING FRANCE THOUGHT THEY COULD ATTRACT PEOPLE TO GO

  • LOWER NOBILITY OF FRANCE WOULD GO TO GET LARGE LAND GRANTS

  • LANDLESS FARMERS WOULD GO TO GET THEIR OWN LAND

  • OVER TIME THE PEOPLE THAT LIVED IN NEW FRANCE BECAME KNOWN AS HABITANTS

  • THEY WERE THE WORKERS OF THE LAND AND OFTEN STAYED ALOOF OF POLITICAL MATTERS

  • THEY GREW FOOD, HUNTED IN THE FORESTS, AND WERE VERY RELIGIOUS

  • DESPITE THEIR EFFORTS TO LIVE IN PEACE, WAR WOULD COME TO THEM

  • BY 1755 WAR HAD BROKEN OUT BETWEEN ENGLAND AND FRANCE IN NORTH AMERICA


Early canada

  • THIS IS THE SEVEN YEARS WAR (BEGINS THE NEXT YEAR IN EUROPE)

  • FOR THE FIRST COUPLE OF YEARS THE WAR WENT OKAY FOR THE FRENCH AS THEY CONTROLLED THE ENTRY INTO THE ST LAWRENCE VIA FORTRESS OF LOUISBOURG

  • THEY ALSO CONTROLLED THE STRATEGIC POINTS ALONG THE RIVER

  • BY 1758 HOWEVER, THE WAR TURNED. THE BRITISH NAVY RULED THE SEAS, AND USING BLOCKADE AND NAVAL BOMBARDMENT FORT FRONTENAC AND LOUISBOURG BOTH FELL

  • NOW THE FRENCH HAD TO RETREAT TO QUEBEC AND AWAIT ATTACK

  • THE FRENCH WERE LED BY GENERAL MONTCALME AND THE BRITISH BY GENERAL WOLFE


Early canada

  • THE BRITISH CONTINUOUSLY SUPPLIED THEIR MEN BY SEA AND THE FRENCH COULD NOT GET SUPPLIES OR MORE MEN FROM FRANCE

  • THUS MONTCALME WAS ON HIS OWN

  • IN SEPTEMBER 1759 THE TWO MET ON THE PLAINS OF ABRAHAM WHERE BOTH WERE MORTALLY WOUNDED

  • IN THE END THE BRITISH TAKE THE DAY AND QUEBEC FALLS TO THE ENGLISH

  • THE FOLLOWING YEAR 1760 MONTREAL FALLS AND NEW FRANCE OFFICIALLY CEASES TO EXIST


Early canada

  • NOW THE FRENCH HAD HOPED TO WIN THE WAR IN EUROPE AND GET BACK HER POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA AT THE BARGAINING TABLE AS SHE HAD DONE BEFORE

  • THIS TIME IT DID NOT HAPPEN

  • IN 1763 THE TREATY OF PARIS CEDED ALL FRENCH CLAIMS IN NORTH AMERICA TO ENGLAND EXCEPT ST PIERRE AND MIQUELON

  • NOW THE ENGLISH HAD TO DECIDE WHAT TO DO WITH 60,000 FRENCH IN THE MIDDLE OF THEIR EMPIRE

  • THEY OFFERED FREE AND SAFE TRANSPORTATION TO FRANCE FOR ALL WHO WISHED TO GO

  • SOME RICH AND ARMY OFFICERS WENT, BUT THE HABITANTS WANTED TO STAY, MOST HAD NEVER EVEN BEEN TO FRANCE AND THEIR LIFE WAS HERE


Early canada

  • THE BRITISH QUICKLY DISMISSED ANOTHER LARGE-SCALE DEPORTATION AS THE ONE WITH THE ACADIANS WAS DIFFICULT ENOUGH AND FAILED IN MANY WAYS

  • IN THE END THE BRITISH DECIDE TO PLACATE THE FRENCH IN QUEBEC AND KEEP THEM HAPPY

  • THEY DID THIS AS GROWING AMERICAN DISSENT IN THE 13 COLONIES MEANT THE BRITISH WERE ON THE VERGE OF A REVOLUTION IN THEIR EMPIRE

  • IF QUEBEC WERE HAPPY, IT WOULD MEAN ONE LESS GROUP THE BRITISH HAD TO WORRY ABOUT.


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