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The Achievement Gap Initiative At Harvard University. Minority Student Achievement Network Annual Conference Youth Culture, Parenting, School Quality, and the Achievement Gap: Toward Excellence with Equity June 26, 2008 Ronald F. Ferguson, PhD

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Minority student achievement network annual conference

The Achievement Gap Initiative

At Harvard University

Minority Student Achievement Network Annual Conference

Youth Culture, Parenting, School Quality, and the Achievement Gap:

Toward Excellence with Equity

June 26, 2008

Ronald F. Ferguson, PhD

Faculty Co-Chair & Director of the Achievement Gap Initiative at Harvard University & Founder, Tripod Project for School Improvement

Contact: [email protected], Erin Hardy 617-496-9154

Web Addresses: www.AGI.Harvard.edu and www.tripodproject.org


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Some Context


Us population shares in 2000

US Population Shares in 2000


Us population shares projected for 2050

US Population SharesProjected for 2050


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Program for International Student Assessment, 15-Year Olds, 2003,

Math Literacy in OECD Nations (Dark Blue = U.S. Students)


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Program for International Student Assessment, 15-Year Olds, 2003,

Math Problem Solving in OECD Nations (Dark Blue = U.S. Students)


Minority student achievement network annual conference

The Goal:

With regard to race, ethnicity, and nationality,

the goal should be

group proportional equality.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

A Social, Cultural and Political Movement for Excellence with Equity

Movement

Strategies

Policies

Programs

Projects


Minority student achievement network annual conference

  • There is an urgent need for:

  • Youth cultures that more consistently support behaviors consistent with academic learning and the pursuit of excellence;

  • Parenting that nurtures intellectual growth and balances warmth and responsiveness with structure and demandingness;

  • Teaching that engages and challenges students to achieve at higher levels;

  • Community supports to supplement parents and teachers;

  • Leadership to organize, guide and motivate others

    in a 21st Century Social Movement for Excellence with Equity.

    Urgency AND Possibility.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Risks Associated with Blame and Mistrust as

Impediments to Open, Honest, On-Target Discourse

For Closing Achievement Gaps


Minority student achievement network annual conference

  • Reasons to be Hopeful

  • that Progress is Possible

  • Minimal between-group differences among infants—it appears we start from the same place.

  • Black-White IQ gaps are smaller than in the past.

  • NAEP trends showed dramatic gap narrowing between 1970 and 1990, showing that rapid progress is possible.

  • Recent NAEP trends for 9-year olds show movement toward group-proportional equality (i.e., all rising but lowest groups rising faster)


Minority student achievement network annual conference

  • But, Some Sobering Realities

  • Progress for teenagers mostly stopped around 1990.

  • Most high poverty, high minority schools score very poorly.

  • Racial gaps are often largest among children of the college educated.

  • 15 percent of high schools produce half of our dropouts and children of color are heavily concentrated in these schools.

  • There are large disparities between states, with poor states tending to score lower and receive least federal aid on a per student cost-adjusted basis.

  • Schools where progress causes scores to rise for all groups while gaps get narrower are not as common as we might like (though recent NAEP Trends for 9-year olds is encouraging).


Minority student achievement network annual conference

READING: Black 12th graders whose parents are college graduates have average reading scores below those of white 12th graders whose parents are high school graduates and have never attended college. (National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2005)

Compare


Minority student achievement network annual conference

MATH: Black 12th graders whose parents are college graduates have average math scores almost as low as those of white 12th graders whose parents are high school dropouts. (National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2000)

Compare


Minority student achievement network annual conference

SCIENCE: Black 12th graders whose parents are college graduates have average science scores no higher than those of white 12th graders whose parents are high school dropouts. (National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2005)

Compare


Minority student achievement network annual conference

  • Parenting Practices and Home Life Styles

  • Mother-child interactions during infancy help predict test scores in early elementary years and help explain achievement gaps.

  • Parenting practices (warmth and demandingness) during early school years help predict test scores during early adolescence and help explain achievement gaps.

  • Compared to Whites and Asians, Black and Hispanic children in elementary school report less leisure reading at home, fewer books at home, more television watching, more televisions in bedrooms, and get sleepier at school.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Home Learning Conditions


Minority student achievement network annual conference

My parents want me to tell them what I learned in school.

(“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No.”) (Grades 1-6)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and CA. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=687; Black, N=1355; Hispanic, N=561; White, N=2647. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=100; Black=936; Hispanic=281; White=337.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

At home, someone is always there

to help me with my homework if I need it.

(“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No.”) (Grades 1-6)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and CA. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=687; Black, N=1351; Hispanic, N=564; White, N=2639. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=102; Black=940; Hispanic=281; White=331.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

I read almost everyday at home.

(“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No.”) (Grades 1-6)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and CA. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=688; Black, N=1360; Hispanic, N=567; White, N=2650. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=103; Black=944; Hispanic=285; White=337.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Percentages who agree, “I read almost everyday at home.”

(“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No.”) (Grades 1-6)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and CA. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=688; Black, N=1360; Hispanic, N=567; White, N=2650. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=103; Black=944; Hispanic=285; White=337.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Percentages who agree, “I read almost everyday at home.”

(“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No.”) (Grades 1-6)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and CA. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=688; Black, N=1360; Hispanic, N=567; White, N=2650. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=103; Black=944; Hispanic=285; White=337.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Percentages who agree, “I read almost everyday at home.”

(“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No.”) (Grades 1-6)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and CA. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=688; Black, N=1360; Hispanic, N=567; White, N=2650. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=103; Black=944; Hispanic=285; White=337.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Within-race median parental responses in 1998 to: How many children’s books does your [kindergarten] child have in your home now, including library books? By mother’s years of schooling.

Blacks

Whites

Mother’s Years of Schooling

Source: Presenter’s calculations using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, a US Dept of Education national survey.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

At home, I watch television more than I do anything else. (“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No.”) (Grades 1-6)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and CA. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=687; Black, N=1355; Hispanic, N=566; White, N=2652. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=104; Black=936; Hispanic=280; White=335.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Percentages who agree, “At home, I watch TV more than I do anything else.” White students, by number of computers at home. (“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No.”) (Grades 1-5)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and CA. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=688; Black, N=1360; Hispanic, N=567; White, N=2650. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=103; Black=944; Hispanic=285; White=337.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Percentages who agree, “At home, I watch TV more than I do anything else.” Black students, by number of computers at home. (“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No.”) (Grades 1-5)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and CA. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=688; Black, N=1360; Hispanic, N=567; White, N=2650. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=103; Black=944; Hispanic=285; White=337.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Percentages who agree, “At home, I watch TV more than I do anything else.” Hispanic students, by number of computers at home. (“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No.”) (Grades 1-5)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and CA. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=688; Black, N=1360; Hispanic, N=567; White, N=2650. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=103; Black=944; Hispanic=285; White=337.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Percentages with computers in their bedrooms. (Grades 1-6)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and MO. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=690; Black, N=1362; Hispanic, N=568; White, N=2649. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=103; Black=939; Hispanic=286; White=339.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Percentages with televisions in their bedrooms. (Grades 1-6)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and CA. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=693; Black, N=1364; Hispanic, N=570; White, N=2654. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=105; Black=937; Hispanic=285; White=336.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

On many days, I get very sleepy at school.

(“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No.”) (Grades 1-6)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and CA. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=683; Black, N=1341; Hispanic, N=557; White, N=2631. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=103; Black=933; Hispanic=280; White=335.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Sometimes my teacher says that I don’t

pay attention like I should.

(“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No.”) (Grades 1-6)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and CA. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=681; Black, N=1342; Hispanic, N=560; White, N=2619. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=103; Black=933; Hispanic=278; White=329.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Sometimes I get into trouble at school.

(“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No.”) (Grades 1-6)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and CA. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=687; Black, N=1363; Hispanic, N=568; White, N=2642. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=105; Black=941; Hispanic=287; White=344.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

I have done my best quality work in school

all year long.

(“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No.”) (Grades 1-6)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and CA. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=681; Black, N=1344; Hispanic, N=561; White, N=2625. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=101; Black=930; Hispanic=279; White=332.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

When I work hard,

it is because my teacher tells me I can do well.

(“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No.”) (Grades 1-6)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and CA. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=679; Black, N=1352; Hispanic, N=566; White, N=2629. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=103; Black=934; Hispanic=284; White=334.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

When I work hard,

it is because my parents tell me I can do well.

(“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No.”) (Grades 1-6)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and CA. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=682; Black, N=1343; Hispanic, N=561; White, N=2614. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=103; Black=930; Hispanic=282; White=331.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

When I work hard,

it is because my teacher makes me do it.

(“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No.”) (Grades 1-6)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and CA. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=675; Black, N=1346; Hispanic, N=565; White, N=2637. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=104; Black=934; Hispanic=278; White=337.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

When I work hard,

it is because my parents make me do it.

(“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No.”) (Grades 1-6)

Source: Calculations by Ron Ferguson, using Tripod Project data for 1st to 6th graders collected spring 2005 & ‘06 from 45 elementary schools in NJ, CT, OH, NM, IA, MA, MI and CA. “Advantaged” students have (by our definition) at least one computer in the home AND are not from single parent households; others are labeled“Disadvantaged.” Advantaged: Asian, N=680; Black, N=1345; Hispanic, N=562; White, N=2620. Disadvantaged: Asian, N=104; Black=930; Hispanic=281; White=333.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Racial differences in Parenting Styles, re:

Warmth/Responsiveness/Nurturance

Cognitive stimulation

Outings with parents

Time with mother

Parental monitoring

Strictness/Demandingness

Limited say in rules

No arguing about rules

Parental involvement/rules re schoolwork

Limited adolescent decision making


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Reading Scores

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, by Parenting Style

From work by Jelani Mandara, Northwestern University.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Percentages in each category

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, by Parenting Style

From work by Jelani Mandara, Northwestern University.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

  • Peers

  • Black and Hispanic students who get the highest grades may suffer a popularity penalty, with fewer peers listing them as friends.

  • There is some evidence that the popularity penalty may be associated more with the ”racial authenticity” of personal styles among some high achievers (speech styles, music preferences, trusting attitudes) than with their achievement levels or aspirations, per se.

  • There is opposition to hard work and “nerdy” behavior even among white students and racial differences in this domain appear to be minimal.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

“My friends think it’s important to work hard to get high grades.”

Males, percentages giving each response, 117 secondary schools across 15 states.

Source: Tripod Project surveys of secondary school students. N: Schools=117; Students: White=10184; Black=4114; Hispanic=3871; Asian= 1258. States: AZ, CA, CT, IA, IL, MA, MI, MO, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OR, VA, WI


Minority student achievement network annual conference

“My friends think it’s important to work hard to get high grades.”

Females, percentages giving each response, 117 secondary schools across 15 states.

Source: Tripod Project surveys of secondary school students. N: Schools=117; Students: White=10229; Black=4534; Hispanic=4205; Asian=1244. States: AZ, CA, CT, IA, IL, MA, MI, MO, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OR, VA, WI.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Levels of agreement among black high school students with the statement, “I feel out of place in this class, like I don’t really fit in.” Lines distinguish students for whom people like themselves are “never or usually not accused” of acting white versus “sometimes, usually or always” accused. (z-values)


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Levels of agreement among Hispanic high school students with the statement, “I feel out of place in this class, like I don’t really fit in.” Lines show distinguish students for whom people like themselves are “never or usually not accused” of acting white versus “sometimes, usually or always” accused. (z-values)


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Levels of agreement among white high school students with the statement, “I feel out of place in this class, like I don’t really fit in.” Lines show distinguish students for whom people like themselves are “never or usually not accused” of acting white versus “sometimes, usually or always” accused. (z-values)


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Levels of agreement among black male and female high school students with the statement, “I feel out of place in this class, like I don’t really fit in.” Lines distinguish students for whom people like themselves are “never or usually not accused” of acting white versus “sometimes, usually or always” accused. (z-values)


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Considering all black high school students, why some respond that people like themselves “usually” or “always” get accused of acting white, while others say “usually not” or “never.” Percentages attributable to each listed factor.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Percentages of black female high school students agreeing that it is at least somewhat true that, "I sometimes hold back from doing my best in this class, because of what others might say or think." Shown by GPA and by whether students responded "never" to the statement, "At this school, students like me get accused of acting white."


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Percentages of black male high school students agreeing that it is at least somewhat true that, "I sometimes hold back from doing my best in this class, because of what others might say or think." Shown by GPA and by whether students responded "never" to the statement, "At this school, students like me get accused of acting white."


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Percent responding, “somewhat true,” “mostly true,” or “totally true,” that, “My behavior is a problem for the teacher in this class.”

Blacks

Whites

Mother’s Years of Schooling

Male Female


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Exhibit 2: The percentage who agree: "Some classmates tease kids who make mistakes," for three classroom racial mixes and five grade levels. (n=15344 elementary students, fall semester 2003.)


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Percentages responding “Somewhat,” “Mostly,” or “Totally True,” that, “Students in this class tease people who get wrong answers.” By grade and classroom racial composition. (N=65,051)


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Class to Class Variation in the Quality of Instruction


Research inspired tips for high achievement parenting

RESEARCH-INSPIRED TIPS FOR HIGH-ACHIEVEMENT PARENTING

  • Promote daily leisure reading at home.

  • Try to ensure that your child gets enough sleep not to be sleepy at school. Consult local experts about how much sleep a child needs at your child’s age.

  • Make sure your child eats a nutritious breakfast.

  • Express warmth regularly. This means (for example):

    • Spend time together

    • Listen carefully to what your child has to say

    • Respond thoughtfully and sensitively to what they say

    • Hug your child

    • Tell them you are proud that they are good people

    • Tell them you are proud when they try to do their best

    • Tell them that you love them

    • Allow the child to help set rules, when appropriate


Minority student achievement network annual conference

5. Balance warmth (#4, above) with structure and demandingness. This means have clear and firm rules about (for example):

  • Doing homework (and seeking help when needed)

  • Television watching (not “all the time”)

  • Friends (children who respect your values)

  • Time to be home

  • Chores and responsibilities

  • Treatment of siblings

  • Respect for adults

  • Bedtime on school nights (early enough to avoid being sleepy in school)


Minority student achievement network annual conference

  • Discuss reading materials with children in ways that encourage them to enjoy learning

  • During bedtime reading, ask both easy (build confidence) and more difficult (but not stressful) questions about the story (the more difficult questions help with comprehension). Do it lovingly.

  • Have a variety of reading materials for children, especially materials that are related to your child’s special interests. (For younger children, the variety is important because it is difficult to have thoughtful bedtime discussions over and over about the same story. There need to be new stories that raise new questions.)

  • Try constantly to reinforce the idea that learning can be enjoyable/fun/stimulating/fascinating.

  • Don’t overemphasize getting things correct; emphasize effort and comprehension instead.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

  • Seek opportunities at home to discuss and apply what your child is learning at school. For example, having them help with cooking and recipes is a good way to reinforce elementary school math lessons (adding, multiplying, fractions, dividing). Discussion of current events in the newspaper may connect to what your child is doing in social studies. Ask teachers for ideas that you can use in connecting home life to school life.

  • Actively seek out-of-school time opportunities for:

    • Tutoring and reinforcing school lessons

    • Extra-curricular opportunities with freedom to explore and be creative

    • Extra-curricular opportunities to develop special talents


Minority student achievement network annual conference

  • Know your child’s close friends and try to know their parents.

  • When it seems necessary, be a role model and caring adult for your child’s friends.

  • Encourage your child to think about his or her future and to set goals. Help your children develop the habit of planning for both near-term and longer-term goals.

  • Try to limit television watching by substituting other constructive and interesting activities.

  • Build up you child’s sense of being a valued person. Avoid using negative nicknames such as “dummy” or “knucklehead” or “lazybones” or “good-for-nothing.” Instead, use names like “sweetheart” or “honey” or “my bright boy” or “love of my life.”

  • Try to end every reprimand with a positive statement that lets your child know you have separated your disappointment about their behavior from your pride about what a good person they really are.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Class to class variation

In the quality of instruction


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Teachers Use Multiple Explanations

Each vertical bar is percentage agreement in an individual classroom

Measured by:

If you don’t understand something, my teacher explains it another way.

My teacher has several good ways to explain each topic that we cover.

School B

School C

School A


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Teachers Use Multiple Explanations

Each vertical bar is percentage agreement in an individual classroom

Measured by:

My teacher has several good ways to explain each topic that we cover.

Sch A (MSAN)

Sch B (MSAN)

Sch C (MSAN)


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Percentages of Whites, Blacks and Hispanics responding “mostly true” or “totally true” to the statement, “My teacher in this class makes me feel that he or she really cares about me.” The X-axis is the percentage white students in the school.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Percentages of Whites, Blacks and Hispanics who did not respond “never” to the statement, “Because of race, some teachers think I’m less smart than I am.” The X-axis is the percentage white students in the school.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Agreement (std. units) by Whites, Blacks and Hispanics with the statement, “Sometimes in this class, I worry about not looking smart.” The X-axis is the percentage white students in the school.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Toward Excellence with Equity:

An Emerging Vision for Closing the Achievement Gap

Ronald F. Ferguson

(Harvard Education Press, Dec. 2007)

From a comment in the publication Education Next, Summer 2008:

Ferguson ranges well beyond schools into economic factors teacher attitudes, parenting practices, cultural constructs, community views, and some interventions (such as his own “Tripod Project”) designed to narrow the achievement gap. The volume provides an illuminating and alarming tour of today’s racial gaps (white-black, mainly, but also white-Hispanic) and the many factors that feed them. Along with revealing data, perceptive analysis, and welcome candor, however, comes a certain skittishness in sensitive areas such as African American parenting practices, a bit of folly (encouragement of dialect and street language in English class), and some sky-pie about “collective action” and national leadership to solve problems for which there are no easy solutions.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

  • Goals of the Movement:

  • Youth cultures that more consistently support behaviors consistent with academic learning and the pursuit of excellence;

  • Parenting that nurtures intellectual growth and balances warmth and responsiveness with structure and demandingness;

  • Teaching that engages and challenges students to achieve at higher levels;

  • Community supports to supplement parents and teachers;

  • Leadership to organize, guide and motivate others

    in a 21st Century Social Movement for Excellence with Equity.

    Urgency AND Possibility.


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Which part of our vision

is the “sky pie”?


Minority student achievement network annual conference

Strategic Components of a Data Rich, Aligned, Coherent, Ambitiously Goal-Oriented

Movement for Excellence with Equity in [A Particular School District]

(Boxes under each strategy are aligned with one another for coherence and, where appropriate, linked to other strategies.)

  • Strategy 1,

  • Instruction:

  • Ambitious Goals

  • Quality Curr. &Materials

  • C. Differentiation

  • D. Assessment for Learning

  • E. Thematic Focus

Strategy 2,

Climate:

A. Improve Behaviors

B. Respect Diversity

C. Be Culturally Competent

D. Incorporate Newcomers

Strategy 3,

Parental:

A. School Involvement

B. Home-based Practices

C. Supplemental Supports

(e.g., out-of-school time

programming)

  • Strategy 4,

  • Technology:

  • . . .

  • . . .

Strategy 5,

Leadership:

A. District (Bd., Supt, Union)

B. School (Adults)

C. School (Students)

D. Classroom

E. Community

Beliefs and

Norms:

Beliefs and

Norms:

Beliefs and

Norms:

Beliefs and

Norms:

Beliefs and

Norms:

Stakeholders

And Participants:

Stakeholders

And Participants:

Stakeholders

And Participants:

Stakeholders

And Participants:

Stakeholders

And Participants:

Organizational

Structures, including

“named programs”

Organizational

Structures:

Organizational

Structures:

Organizational

Structures:

Organizational

Structures:

Capacities

For Implementation:

Capacities

For Implementation:

Capacities

For Implementation:

Capacities

For Implementation:

Capacities

For Implementation:

Accountability

Mechanisms

Accountability

Mechanisms

Accountability

Mechanisms

Accountability

Mechanisms

Accountability

Mechanisms

Key Action

Steps:

Key Action

Steps:

Key Action

Steps:

Key Action

Steps:

Key Action

Steps:

Ronald F. Ferguson, Harvard Univ.


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