HEAT & TEMPERATURE. Temperature Scales. Heat Transfer and Warming. What happens to the heat?. Where does the heat go?. It’s the Ocean!!!. Heat Capacity. Heat capacity is the amount of heat required to change an object’s temperature
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HEAT & TEMPERATURE
Heat Transfer and Warming
to the heat?
It’s the Ocean!!!
The Oceans are Earth’s heat capacitors
A New Balance
A Warmer World
Energy Balance:The Ocean Planet
This takes 1000 years!!!
Net Radiation= Incoming-Outgoing
Distribution of Net Radiation:
Bowen Ratio= H/LE
Marine vs. Continental Location
The Urban Environment
Causes of the Urban Heat Island:
1. increased RL↓ due to absorption of outgoing RL and re-emission by pollution.
2. decreased net RL↑ loss from canyons due to reduction in sky-view factor (SVF) by buildings.
3. greater shortwave radiation absorbed due to effect of canyon geometry on albedo.
4. greater day heat storage due to thermal properties of urban materials and its nocturnal release.
5. anthropogenic heat (QF) from building sides.
6. decreased evaporation (QE) due to removal of vegetation and surface ‘water proofing’ of city.
7. decreased loss of sensible heat (H) due to reduced winds in canopy.
Photograph (left) and thermal image (right) of a dense residential neighbourhood in Tokyo Japan. The skyline of the Shinjuku area of Tokyo is visible in the background. The thermal image was taken in early October during the late afternoon as the urban surface began to cool. The photograph was taken on a different day and is courtesy of M. Roth (National University of Singapore).