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Chapter 2.3 Notes: Apply Deductive Reasoning

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Chapter 2.3 Notes: Apply Deductive Reasoning

Goal: You will use deductive reasoning to form a logical argument.

- Deductive reasoning uses facts, definitions, accepted properties, and the laws of logic to form a logical argument.
- This is different from inductive reasoning, which uses specific examples and patterns to form a conjecture.

- Laws of Logic:
- Law of Detachment:
If the hypothesis of a true conditional statement is true, then the conclusion is also true.

Ex.1: Use the Law of Detachment to make a valid conclusion in the true situation.

a. If two segments have the same length, then they are congruent. You know that BC = XY.

b. Mary goes to the movies every Friday and Saturday night. Today is Friday.

- Law of Syllogism:
If p, then q.

If q, then r.

If p, then r.

Ex.2: If possible, use the Law of Syllogism to write a new conditional statement that follows from the pair of true statements.

a. If Rick takes chemistry this year, then Jesse will be Rick’s lab partner.

If Jesse is Rick’s lab partner, then Rick will get an

A in chemistry.

b. If x2 > 25, then x2 > 20.

If x > 5, then x2 > 25.

c. If a polygon is regular, then all angles in the interior of the polygon are congruent.

If a polygon is regular, then all of its sides are congruent.

Ex.3: Use the Law of Detachment to make a valid conclusion in the true situation.

a. If two angles are right angles, then they are congruent. Angle C and Angle D are right angles.

b. If Nathan is enrolled at Metro High School, then Nathan has an ID number. Nathan is enrolled at Metro High School.

Ex.4: If possible, use the Law of Syllogism to write a new conditional statement that follows from the pair of true statements.

a. If the radius of a circle is 4 ft, then the diameter is 8 ft. If the radius of a circle is 4 ft, then its area is 16π ft2.

b. If Joe takes Geometry this year, then he will take Algebra 2 next year. If Joe takes Algebra 2 next year, then he will graduate.

c. If y3 = 8, then y = 2. If y = 2, then 3y + 4 = 10.

Ex.5: If 90o < < 180o, then is obtuse. The measure of is 155o. Using the Law of Detachment, what statement can you make?

Ex.6: If Jenelle gets a job, then she can afford a car. If Jenelle can afford a car, then she will drive to school. Using the Law of Syllogism, what statement can you make?