1. OUTLINING Making and Using an Outline
2. What is an Outline? An outline is a way of organizing key ideas
An outline helps to set up an essay or a research paper
An outline is a tool to help revise an essay or research paper.
An outline can be a study tool to help you summarize key ideas in reading
3. Defining the Kinds of Outlines A scratch outline is a preliminary list that lets you see where you need to go. It is a rough list of your first ideas.
A scratch outline is a starting point only. It is putting on the clothes without the accessories.
A scratch outline often changes significantly as you begin to research and write.
4. Two Examples The Scratch Outline
Problems with Immigration
Who should be allowed to immigrate?
What screening procedures should we use?
Who should be given student visas?
What checks should the government make?
Should there be a number limit on immigration?
5. DEFINING THE FORMAL OUTLINE A formal outline shows, in logical order, what you will be writing about.
A formal outline helps you separate main ideas and supporting ideas
A formal outline gives you a foundation from which to build an introduction, a body, and a conclusion.
A formal outline often changes after you write your first draft. It will show you where you need to add more research or make other changes.
6. FORMAL OUTLINE Addressing Immigration after 9/11
II. Criteria for immigration
A. Political refugees
B. Relatives of citizens
C. Other applications
III. Screening Criteria
A. Medical Screening
C. Psychological screening
D. Background check
A. Purpose of study
B. Commitment to study
1. How long will they stay?
2. How will they finance their education and support themselves?
C. Value to our educational system
V. Government oversight
A. Obligation to have periodic checks on immigrants and students
B. Reporting any legal violations or suspicious behavior
C. The government needs to limit the number of immigrants
7. SCRATCH VS. FORMAL A scratch outline is a collection of notes or ideas that needs to be refined and expanded. Itís a raw material rather than a finished product.
A formal outline shows evidence of thought, revision, planning, or research. It uses a prescribed format: Roman numerals, upper case letters, numbers, and lower case letters. It may be further expanded or revised as research progresses.
8. Creating an Outline Take several minutes to create an outline. Think about the given topic and make a scratch outline:
Jot down what you already know about this topic.
Think about what you want to learn or explore about this topic.
Think about what conclusions you may reach.
Topic: Ensuring travel safety in (airports, train stations, bus terminals)
9. Time to Compare! Exchange your scratch outline with a partner. Have a five-minute discussion in which you take turns explaining what you wrote in your outline.
10. LETíS GET FORMAL! With your expanded knowledge, try to create a formal outline for your essay on ensuring airport safety.
Your title will be the umbrella under which you place your main topics and subtopics.
Remember to use Roman numerals, upper and lower case letters, and numbers.
11. Summary Letís summarize what you have learned:
A. Scratch Outline
1. Informal, preliminary
B. Formal Outline
1. More formal, requires more research
II. Purpose for Using an Outline
A. To help organize key ideas in writing an essay or research paper
B. To help summarize key ideas in reading
C. To help you develop subtopics