Creating the constitution chapter 2 section 4
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 85

Creating the Constitution Chapter 2, Section 4 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 52 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Creating the Constitution Chapter 2, Section 4. Basically written so 13 countries could work together on some issues State governments had most of the power. Many members didn’t attend Congress, so laws couldn’t be passed (quorum)

Download Presentation

Creating the Constitution Chapter 2, Section 4

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Creating the constitution chapter 2 section 4

Creating the ConstitutionChapter 2, Section 4


Creating the constitution chapter 2 section 4

  • Basically written so 13 countries could work together on some issues

  • State governments had most of the power


Creating the constitution chapter 2 section 4

  • Many members didn’t attend Congress, so laws couldn’t be passed (quorum)

  • Articles couldn’t be amended without unanimous consent of ALL states


The solution

The Solution:

  • May 25, 1787 – The states meet in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation


The framers

The Framers

  • Framers - the group of delegates who attended the Constitutional Convention

  • Rhode Island – only colony that didn’t attend

  • 55 Delegates met

  • “Never before or since, has so remarkable a group of men been brought together in this country.” Thomas Jefferson


Organization and procedure

Organization and Procedure

  • Rules of procedure:

    • Majority of the states needed to conduct business (Quorum)

    • Each state delegation had one vote on all matters.

    • Majority of the votes would carry a proposal.


The plan

The Plan

  • Clearly the Articles couldn’t be fixed

  • 5 Days after the Convention began, they voted to create a new Constitution


Organization and procedure1

Organization and Procedure

  • Worked in secrecy

  • James Madison became the floor leader

    • Called the “Father of the Constitution”

    • Only delegate to bring a plan


Virginia plan

Virginia Plan

  • James Madison’s plan

    • Bicameral Legislature

    • Representation in each housed based on

      • State’s population

      • Amount of money it gave to central government


Virginia plan1

Virginia Plan

  • Lower house were popularly elected.

  • Senate (upper house) were chosen by the house from list of persons nominated by state legislatures.

  • Congress was given all powers under Articles plus:

    • Veto state law in conflict with national law

    • Use force to make states comply


Virginia plan2

Virginia Plan

  • Congress would choose a “National Executive” and a “National Judiciary”

  • These two branches called the “Council of Revision”

  • Could veto congress

  • Veto could be overridden by the two houses.

  • Congress could admit new states to the union


Virginia plan3

Virginia Plan

  • Create a new Constitution by revising the Articles

  • Create a truly national government with greatly expanded powers

  • Ability to enforce those powers

  • Smaller states did not like it


The new jersey plan

The New Jersey Plan

  • Retained unicameral Congress

  • Each state equally represented

  • Added powers to tax and regulate trade between states.

  • Federal executive of more than one person chosen by Congress


The new jersey plan1

The New Jersey Plan

  • Could be removed by a majority of the states governors.

  • Federal judiciary, ”supreme tribunal” appointed by the executive


Major point of disagreement

Major Point of Disagreement

  • How would states be represented?


The connecticut compromise

The Connecticut Compromise

  • Settled the conflict

  • Congress composed of two houses.

  • Senate = states represented equally.

  • House of Representatives = based on population.

  • Was called the “Great Compromise”


3 major conflicts

3 Major Conflicts:

  • Representation in Congress

  • Counting Slaves

  • Commerce / Slave Trade


The three fifths compromise

The Three-Fifths Compromise

  • How should slaves be counted in the south?

    • South thought they should be counted

    • North thought they should not.

  • Free persons were counted and “Three fifths of all other persons”


Commerce slave trade compromise

Commerce / Slave Trade Compromise

  • The South had concerns re: power of the federal gov’t to regulate trade

  • Compromise:

    • Congress couldn’t tax state exports

    • Couldn’t do anything to slave trade for 20 years (1808)


Summary

Summary

  • Despite many compromises, the Framers agreed on the basics:

    • Need for greater powers at the Federal level

    • Representative government

    • Power should rest with the People

    • Government should be limited

  • Finished Sept. 17, 1787


Homework

Homework

  • Read pp.56-58

  • Answer p. 58 (1-5)


Ratification the process of approval

Ratification – The process of approval

Ratification of the Constitution


Creating the constitution chapter 2 section 4

Ratification of the Constitution

  • Federalists – Supported the strong Federal government of the new Constitution

    • Alexander Hamilton

    • James Madison

    • John Jay


Creating the constitution chapter 2 section 4

Ratification of the Constitution

  • Federalists

    • Represented the elite (upper classes)from coastal regions

    • Wrote the Federalist Papers in support of the Constitution


Creating the constitution chapter 2 section 4

Ratification of the Constitution

  • Antifederalists – Opposed the new Constitution

    • Wanted strong state governments

    • Samuel Adams

    • Patrick Henry


Creating the constitution chapter 2 section 4

Ratification of the Constitution

  • Antifederalists

    • Represented backcountry farmers

    • Demanded a Bill of Rights to protect people from their government


Bill of rights

Bill of Rights

1st 10 Amendments

Added to ensure ratification of Constitution


Political foundations

Political Foundations

Bill of Rights:

Freedom of Speech, Press, Religion, Assembly

Right to bear arms

Fair Trials


Political foundations1

Political Foundations

Protection from:

Unreasonable Search and Seizure


Creating the constitution chapter 2 section 4

  • Bell Ringer(5)

  • Announcements

  • Review(5-10)

  • New Content (Basic Constitutional Principles)(20)

  • Mini-Poster Assignment(20)

  • Constitution Reading(20)

  • Romney Speech


Outline of the constitution

Outline of the Constitution

  • Preamble

  • 7 Articles outlining the government’s organization

  • 27 Amendments


Outline of the constitution1

Outline of the Constitution

  • Articles I-III: 3 Branches of Government

  • Article IV: States & their relationship to the National Government

  • Article V: Amendment process

  • Article VI: Constitution is the Supreme Law of the Land

  • Article VII: Process for ratification


Basic constitutional principles

Basic Constitutional Principles

  • Popular Sovereignty – People hold ALL the power in our government


Basic constitutional principles1

Basic Constitutional Principles

  • Limited Government –Government can only do what the Constitution says it can


Basic constitutional principles2

Basic Constitutional Principles

  • Separation of Powers – Governmental powers are broken up into 3 branches


Political foundations2

Political Foundations

  • Checks and Balances – Branches should hold each other accountable

  • Chart, p.68 – KNOW IT!


Basic constitutional principles3

Basic Constitutional Principles

  • Federalism – The division between & sharing of power between the state and National Governments


Basic constitutional principles4

Basic Constitutional Principles

  • Judicial Review– Courts determine if government is following the Constitution


Homework1

Homework

  • Create a mini poster that illustrates the 6 principles of the Constitution.

  • For each, include the principle, a brief definition and an image that illustrates the concept.

  • Your choice: Color OR obvious artistic effort


Homework2

Homework

  • Read Article I of the Constitution (pp. 760-766)

  • Take notes on Article I (optional)

  • Be ready for a 10-question open-note quiz over Article I next time we meet


The legislative branch

The Legislative Branch


Objective

Objective

Explain the explicit and implicit organizational structures of Congress


P 262 263

(p.262-263)


Political ideology

Political Ideology


Political ideology1

Political Ideology


Notes ws

Notes WS

  • Term –

  • Session –

  • Adjourn –

  • Prorogue –

  • Special Session -


Questions

Questions

  • Is it good that a Congressional session now lasts for most of the year?

  • When would you be most likely to find our Congressmen in SC?


Objective1

Objective

Explain the explicit and implicit organizational structures of Congress


House of representatives

House of Representatives

  • 435 voting members

    • 4 non-voting members- DC, Guam, Samoa, Virgin Islands

      • Can propose legislation but cannot vote


House of representatives1

House of Representatives

  • Requirements:

    • 25 years old

    • Citizen 7 years

    • Legal resident of state that elects them

    • No term limits


House of representatives2

House of Representatives

  • Selected by a direct popular vote

    • The first Tuesday following the first Monday in November of even numbered years


Question

Question

  • Why have elections every two years for Representatives?


Objective2

Objective

Explain the explicit and implicit organizational structures of Congress


House of representatives3

House of Representatives

  • Representation

    Census- every ten years (next is 2020)


The legislative branch1

The Legislative Branch

  • Reapportionment

    • Article I of the Constitution directs Congress to reapportion—redistribute—the seats in the House after each census.

    • The Reapportionment Act of 1929 set the “permanent” size of the House at 435 members, and provided for “automatic reapportionment.”


The legislative branch2

The Legislative Branch

  • Districts are redrawn as states add/lose representatives

  • State legislatures draw these new districts

  • What is the potential problem here?


The legislative branch3

The Legislative Branch


The legislative branch4

The Legislative Branch

  • Gerrymandering – Drawing districts to create an advantage for the party in power

  • Wesberry v. Sanders (1964)– This is unconstitutional!


House of representatives4

House of Representatives

  • Speaker of House: leader of house, a caucus (closed meeting) of majority party chooses speaker, entire house approves.

    • Decide order of recognition

    • Appoints members to some committees

    • Refers Bills to proper committee

    • Next in line behind V.P. to President

    • Votes in a tie


House of representatives5

House of Representatives

  • House Floor Leaders

    • Majority Leader:

      • Plans legislative program

      • Steers bills through the House

      • Oversee leaders of the committees.

    • Majority Whip:

      • Monitors how reps. will vote & encourages them to vote with the party


House of representatives6

House of Representatives

  • Majority Leader: Eric Cantor (R)

  • Minority Leader: Nancy Pelosi (D)


The united states senate

The United States Senate


The senate

The Senate

  • Requirements:

    • 30 years old

    • Citizen 9 years

    • Legal residents of the state


The senate1

The Senate

  • 2 Members per state

  • Elected for six year terms

    • Elections are staggered so that only 1/3 are up for reelection at one time.


The senate2

The Senate

  • Originally elected by state legislatures

  • 17thAmendment = Senators elected by a direct popular vote


The senate3

The Senate

  • President of the Senate – Vice President

    • Cannot debate

    • Cannot vote unless there is a tie

  • VP does not attend unless a tie is expected

  • President pro tempore– usually the member of the majority party with the most seniority


  • The senate4

    The Senate

    • Filibuster-To prevent a vote by continuing to speak.

    • 3/5 majority can stop the filibuster (cloture)


    Both houses

    Both Houses

    • Legislative Immunity– The Constitution gives members of Congress certain privileges to enable Congress to function properly.

      • Members may not be taken to court for anything they say while Congress is meeting.

      • Members may not be arrested for minor “breaches” of the law while performing official Congressional business.


    Both houses1

    Both Houses

    • Congressional Discipline– “Code of Ethics.” Each house is responsible for disciplining its own members.

      • Reprimand – needs majority vote – (least severe discipline)

      • Censure – needs majority vote

      • Expulsion – needs 2/3 vote (most severe discipline)


    The legislative branch5

    The Legislative Branch


    The legislative branch sec 5 staff and support agencies

    The Legislative BranchSec. 5—Staff and Support Agencies

    • Personal vs. Committee Staff

    • Support Agencies

      • Library of Congress

      • Congressional Budget Office

      • General Accounting Office

      • Government Printing Office


    The legislative branch6

    The Legislative Branch

    • Congressional Discipline – The members of Congress create and abide by a set of rules called the “Code of Ethics.” Each house of Congress (House of Representatives and Senate) is responsible for disciplining its own members.

      • Reprimand – needs majority vote – (least severe discipline)

      • Censure – needs majority vote

      • Expulsion – needs 2/3 vote (most severe discipline)


  • Login