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Chapter 8 Creating the Constitution. C8.2 Early Quarrels and Accomplishments. States quarreled. about taxes on goods traded about state boundaries. Land Ordinance 1785. agreement/law about western lands divided into 6 mile squares (townships) townships had 36 sections of 640 acres each

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c8 2 early quarrels and accomplishments
C8.2 Early Quarrels and Accomplishments

States quarreled

  • about taxes on goods traded
  • about state boundaries
land ordinance 1785
Land Ordinance 1785
  • agreement/law about western lands
  • divided into 6 mile squares (townships)
  • townships had 36 sections of 640 acres each
  • one section for schools
  • other sections sold to settlers
northwest ordinance 1787
Northwest Ordinance 1787
  • law that divided NW Territory into smaller territories
  • territories became states:

- 5,000 free men elect a legislature

- population is 60,000

  • had list of rights for settlers
  • slavery was banned in NW
c8 3 shays s rebellion
C8.3 Shays’s Rebellion

Money problems

  • paper money was worthless
  • not enough gold or silver to mint coins
  • states made their own money
    • too many kinds
    • not worth much
    • hard to trade
slide7

Farmers rebel

  • MA farmers unable to pay debts & taxes
  • courts took their land & livestock
  • Daniel Shays was an unpaid war veteran
  • he led a rebellion
  • rebels took over courts
  • tried to seize weapons in arsenal
slide8

Government’s response

  • no Continental Army
  • federal government had no power to get involved
  • MA state government sent state militia
  • 5 killed, many wounded
  • over 1000 arrested
  • trial set most free
  • 2 were hanged
slide9

Results of the rebellion

  • showed U.S. government was weak
  • need to fix the Articles of Confederation
  • decided to have a constitutional convention
c8 4 opening the constitutional convention
C8.4 Opening the Constitutional Convention

When & Where

  • summer 1787
  • Philadelphia, PA
  • Independence Hall
slide11

Purpose

  • fix the Articles of Confederation
  • instead decided to write a new constitution
  • wanted more power to the national (federal) government
slide12

Delegates

  • 55 men from 12 states (no RI)
  • George Washington was president of the convention
  • two-thirds were lawyers
  • one-third owed slaves
  • James Madison called “Father of the Constitution”

-took over 600 pages of notes

- most involved delegate

  • had a rule of secrecy
slide13

Shared Beliefs

  • purpose of govt. is to protect people’s rights
  • govts. come from the people (“consent of the governed”)
  • ideas of Enlightenment thinkers
    • liberty & equality
    • best govt. is a republic
slide14

Concerns

  • Who should vote?
  • How powerful should the national govt. be?
c8 5 issue how should states be represented in the new government
C8.5 Issue: How should states be represented in the new government?

Proposal

The Virginia Plan

Proposal

The New Jersey Plan

  • 3 branches of govt.
  • Congress has 2 houses
    • representation based on population
    • large states get more reps.
  • 3 branches of govt.
  • Congress has 1 house
    • each state gets the same votes
c8 6 resolution the great compromise
C8.6 Resolution: The Great Compromise
  • 3 branches of govt.
  • two-house Congress
    • House of Representatives based on population (big states get more reps.)
    • Senate, each state gets 2 votes (2 senators)
c8 7 issue how should slaves be counted
C8.7 Issue: How should slaves be counted?

The South

The North

  • wanted slaves counted in a state’s population
  • had the most slaves
  • get more reps. if slaves counted
  • don’t count slaves for representation
  • only count slaves as property to be taxed
  • only count free people for representation
c8 8 resolution the three fifths compromise
C8.8 Resolution: The Three-Fifths Compromise
  • count each slave as three-fifths of a person
  • slave trade could continue for 20 years until 1808
  • fugitive slave law – escaped slaves had to be returned to owners
c8 9 issue how should the chief executive be elected
C8.9 Issue: How should the chief executive be elected?

Areas of Agreement

Areas of Disagreement

  • should have one leader called a president
  • four year term (no king)
  • Vice President
  • some wanted Congress to choose leader
  • some thought people should elect the president
  • some wanted president chosen by a group of electors
c8 10 resolution the electoral college
C8.10 Resolution: The Electoral College
  • group called Electoral College elects Pres. & VP
  • made of electors from each state
  • state electors = # of senators and reps. of the state
  • electors vote in Dec.
  • vote for who won their state
  • need majority vote to win (270 today)
c8 11 the convention ends
C8.11 The Convention Ends
  • ratify = approve
  • needed 9 states to ratify Constitution
  • 38 delegates signed the Constitution
  • 17 delegates refused to sign it
    • gave too much power to national govt.
    • did not protect people’s rights
c8 12 the constitution goes to the nation
C8.12 The Constitution Goes to the Nation

Federalists

Anti-Federalists

  • supporters of the Constitution
  • for a strong national govt.
  • The Federalist Papers: articles urging states to ratify the Constitution
  • opponents of the Constitution
  • fears
    • Congress would over-tax
    • President would be like a king
    • did not list specific rights of people
    • states might lose power
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