Ecology the study of how organisms interact with their environment
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Ecology The study of how organisms interact with their environment. . Biogeography – the study of where organisms live Continental Drift – Motion of the earth’s Continents Has led to how species a re distributed on earth. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1-HwPR_4mP4.

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Ecology the study of how organisms interact with their environment

EcologyThe study of how organisms interact with their environment.


Https www youtube com watch v 1 hwpr 4mp4

Biogeography –

the study of where

organisms live

Continental Drift –

Motion of the earth’s

Continents

Has led to how species

are distributed on earth

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1-HwPR_4mP4

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_5q8hzF9VVE


Primary Succession is a series of changes that occur in an area where no soil or organism can exist. Formed by a volcanic eruption or an undersea volcano. The first species to occur are known as pioneer species. Usually plant life.


Species dispersal wind water animals humans
Species DispersalWind WaterAnimalsHumans


How is species dispersal limited
How is species dispersal limited?

Physical Barriers

Competition

Climate


How did continental drift affect climate? Different biomes are as a result of different temperature and precipitation.

Tundra

Desert

Rain Forest

BorealForest

Grasslands

Deciduous Forest


Deciduous forest biome
Deciduous Forest Biome

Deciduous means losing leaves

30-60 inches of rain per year

50° F average yearly temperature

4 seasons, cold in winter, hot in summer


Layers of the deciduous forest
Layers of the Deciduous Forest

Emergent – tallest trees, exposed to strong sun and wind

Canopy – roof of the forest, home to birds, small mammals, and insects

Understory – shrubs, shade tolerant trees, provides shelter for larger mammals, insects, this is the future forest

Forest Floor – seeds, dead trees, and leaves, fungi, small mammals, insects, amphibians and reptiles,


Secondary succession are changes that occur to an area where the ecosysltem has been disturbed but where soil and organisms exist. Ex. Forest fire or clear cutting


Pennsylvania forests
Pennsylvania Forests

60% of Pennsylvania is forested

Less than 15% of Montgomery county is forested

Most common tree is the Red Maple

Most valuable tree is the Cherry


Pennsylvania habitats are places that provides living things with food water shelter and space
Pennsylvania Habitats are places that provides living things with food , water, shelter and space.

Fields

Forests

Riparian buffer is the edge

of a water way lined with

vegetation. Their roots help

to reduce soil erosion and

they also help to absorb

pollutants.

Streams and Rivers


Pennsylvania Habitats continued

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3oGymnSJ4Ek Bill Nye video on wetlands

Wetlands – areas that are regulary

covered with water.

They are important in reducing soil

erosion and also trap pollutants in their

Sediment.

Home to many different migratory birds

Pond - is a small area of shallow

open water

Home to migratory birds




O rganism one individual
Organism – one individual

Population – one species living in a certain area

Community – all living species in a certain area



Studying populations
Studying Populations interact in the deciduous forest.

Direct Observation – counting all of the members of a population

Indirect Observation –

observing signs of organisms


Studying populations1
Studying Populations interact in the deciduous forest.

Sampling – if populations are very

large or spread over a wide area and

estimate is made

Ex. To estimate the hemlock

(PA State Tree) population in

Pennsylvania you would count the trees in a small area and multiply to find the number in a larger area

Wooly Adelgid


Studying populations2
Studying Populations interact in the deciduous forest.

Mark – and – Recapture – estimate only,

Organisms are captured and marked then rereleased only to be captured and counted at a later date


Scientists need to know the population density which is the total number of organisms that live within an area. The population density ( number of organisms in an area) is determinedby the carrying capacity (the total number of organisms that the habitat can support)


How do populations increase in size
How do populations increase in size? total number of organisms that live within an area.

Birth Rate – Number of births in a population with a certain time period

Immigration – moving into a population from another area


How do populations decrease in size
How do populations decrease in size? total number of organisms that live within an area.

Death rate – the number of deaths in a population in a certain time period

Emigration – moving out

of a population to another area



Space and weather are also limiting factors
Space and Weather are also limiting factors. environment that decreases a population.


Adaptations are traits that organisms have to make them better suited for their environment
Adaptations are traits that organisms have to make them better suited for their environment.


Energy roles of organisms in an ecosystem
Energy roles of organisms in an Ecosystem better suited for their environment

Producers

Consumers

Decomposers


Food chains vs food webs
Food chains vs. Food webs better suited for their environment


Food pyramid
Food Pyramid better suited for their environment


Cycles in nature water cycle

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3SY1Evgjhn8 better suited for their environment

Cycles in Nature - Water cycle

Precipitation

Surface Runoff

Evaporation

Condensation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YPJYPo2qhOM Bill Nye Water cycle video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=al-do-HGuIk


Carbon and oxygen cycles
Carbon and Oxygen Cycles better suited for their environment

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nzImo8kSXiU


Nitrogen cycles
Nitrogen Cycles better suited for their environment

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4NKGS4bj7cc


Relationships between organisms
Relationships between organisms better suited for their environment

Predator/Prey

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hecXupPpE9o

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Odc7PEfit40


Symbiotic relationships are between two species where at least one species benefits
Symbiotic Relationships better suited for their environmentare between two species where at least one species benefits.

Mutualism = both species benefits

Commensalism = one species benefits the other is neither harm or helped

Parisitism = one species benefits

and the other is harmed


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