Ecology the study of how organisms interact with their environment
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Ecology The study of how organisms interact with their environment. . Biogeography – the study of where organisms live Continental Drift – Motion of the earth’s Continents Has led to how species a re distributed on earth.

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Ecology The study of how organisms interact with their environment.

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EcologyThe study of how organisms interact with their environment.

Biogeography –

the study of where

organisms live

Continental Drift –

Motion of the earth’s


Has led to how species

are distributed on earth

Primary Succession is a series of changes that occur in an area where no soil or organism can exist. Formed by a volcanic eruption or an undersea volcano. The first species to occur are known as pioneer species. Usually plant life.

Species DispersalWindWaterAnimalsHumans

How is species dispersal limited?

Physical Barriers



How did continental drift affect climate? Different biomes are as a result of different temperature and precipitation.



Rain Forest



Deciduous Forest

Deciduous Forest Biome

Deciduous means losing leaves

30-60 inches of rain per year

50° F average yearly temperature

4 seasons, cold in winter, hot in summer

Layers of the Deciduous Forest

Emergent – tallest trees, exposed to strong sun and wind

Canopy – roof of the forest, home to birds, small mammals, and insects

Understory – shrubs, shade tolerant trees, provides shelter for larger mammals, insects, this is the future forest

Forest Floor – seeds, dead trees, and leaves, fungi, small mammals, insects, amphibians and reptiles,

Secondary succession are changes that occur to an area where the ecosysltem has been disturbed but where soil and organisms exist. Ex. Forest fire or clear cutting

Pennsylvania Forests

60% of Pennsylvania is forested

Less than 15% of Montgomery county is forested

Most common tree is the Red Maple

Most valuable tree is the Cherry

Pennsylvania Habitats are places that provides living things with food , water, shelter and space.



Riparian buffer is the edge

of a water way lined with

vegetation. Their roots help

to reduce soil erosion and

they also help to absorb


Streams and Rivers

Pennsylvania Habitats continued Bill Nye video on wetlands

Wetlands – areas that are regulary

covered with water.

They are important in reducing soil

erosion and also trap pollutants in their


Home to many different migratory birds

Pond - is a small area of shallow

open water

Home to migratory birds

What needs are met by an organism’s habitat?

  • Food

  • Water

  • Shelter

  • Mates

List the abiotic and biotic factors in these pictures.

Organism – one individual

Population – one species living in a certain area

Community – all living species in a certain area

Ecosystem – all the living and nonliving things that interact in the deciduous forest.

Studying Populations

Direct Observation – counting all of the members of a population

Indirect Observation –

observing signs of organisms

Studying Populations

Sampling – if populations are very

large or spread over a wide area and

estimate is made

Ex. To estimate the hemlock

(PA State Tree) population in

Pennsylvania you would count the trees in a small area and multiply to find the number in a larger area

Wooly Adelgid

Studying Populations

Mark – and – Recapture – estimate only,

Organisms are captured and marked then rereleased only to be captured and counted at a later date

Scientists need to know the population density which is the total number of organisms that live within an area. The population density ( number of organisms in an area) is determinedby the carrying capacity (the total number of organisms that the habitat can support)

How do populations increase in size?

Birth Rate – Number of births in a population with a certain time period

Immigration – moving into a population from another area

How do populations decrease in size?

Death rate – the number of deaths in a population in a certain time period

Emigration – moving out

of a population to another area

  • Limiting factors for populations are things in the environment that decreases a population.

  • Food and Water

Space and Weather are also limiting factors.

Adaptations are traits that organisms have to make them better suited for their environment.

Energy roles of organisms in an Ecosystem




Food chains vs. Food webs

Food Pyramid

Cycles in Nature - Water cycle


Surface Runoff


Condensation Bill Nye Water cycle video

Carbon and Oxygen Cycles

Nitrogen Cycles

Relationships between organisms


Symbiotic Relationshipsare between two species where at least one species benefits.

Mutualism = both species benefits

Commensalism = one species benefits the other is neither harm or helped

Parisitism = one species benefits

and the other is harmed

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