I. How Organisms Interact. Some interactions among species are the result of a long evolutionary history in which many of the participants adjust to one another over time. Types of Species Interactions : 1. Predator / Prey 2. Symbiosis.
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Some interactions among species are the result of a long evolutionary history in which many of the participants adjust to one another over time.
-One of the most basic forms of relationships between organisms.
-Often characterized by various prey acquisition and predator avoidance tactics.
2.Symbiosis- Relationship where species live together
Three types of symbiotic relationships
A. Parasitism- one organism living in or on another, often causing harm
B. Mutualism- two or more organisms living together benefiting each.
C. Commensalism- two or more organisms living together, one benefiting, one neither helped or harmed.
II. How Competition Shapes Communities
A. Competition– The interaction between organisms either of the same or different species that require the same resources.
1. Intraspecific - Competition
between members of the same species
2. Interspecific:-Competition between 2 or more different species
B. Niche – the role or “job” of an organism within its environment.
*Described in terms of how the organism affects energy flow within the ecosystem in which it lives.
* If the resources of organisms with overlapping niches are in short supply, it is likely that their will be competition between the organisms.
1. Competition with Limitations of Resources
2. Competition without Limitations of Resources
III. Major Biological Communities
Where an organism lives often depends on an areas CLIMATE
THE PREVAILING WEATHER CONDITIONS IN ANY GIVEN AREA.
THE TWO MOST IMPORTANT elements of climate are temperature and moisture
-Land portion of the biosphere
-Distinct CLIMATE and specific life-forms adapted for life within that climate.
A. Categories of ecosystems…
2. Aquatic Life Zones
Average annual precipitation
100-125 cm (40-50 in.)
75-100 cm (30-40 in.)
50-75 cm (20-30 in.)
25-50 cm (10-20 in.)
below 25 cm (0-10 in.)
2. Aquatic life zones:
Marine– those that contain raised levels of salt
(Estuaries, Coastlines, Reefs, Oceans)