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Tools and Resources. With a focus on REA. In this session, we will…. Identify the key tools and resources regarding environmental activities Describe the REA and its strengths and Identify appropriate situations for its application. Some Tools and Resources.

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Tools and resources

Tools and Resources

With a focus on REA


In this session we will

In this session, we will…

  • Identify the key tools and resources regarding environmental activities

  • Describe the REA and its strengths and

  • Identify appropriate situations for its application


Some tools and resources

Some Tools and Resources

  • Environmental Stewardship Review for Humanitarian Aid (WWF)

  • ECLAC, Handbook for Estimating the Socio-economic and Environment Effects of Disasters

  • UNEP, Environmental Needs Assessment in Post-Disaster Situations: A Practical Guide for Implementation

  • Flash Environment Assessment Tool (FEAT)

  • IUCN Ecosystems, Livelihoods and Disasters

  • Guidelines on Camp Closure


Some more tools and resources

Some More Tools and Resources

  • Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment in Disasters (REA)

  • Framework for Assessing, Monitoring and Evaluating the Environment in Refugee-related Operations (FRAME)

  • Emergency Shelter Environmental Impact Assessment and Action Checklist


Environmental stewardship review for humanitarian aid wwf

Environmental Stewardship Review for Humanitarian Aid (WWF)


Economic commission of latin america and the caribbean eclac

Economic Commission of Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

Section Five: Overall Effects of Damages

  • Environment

  • The impact of disasters on women

  • Damage overview

  • Macroeconomic effects of damages

  • Employment and income


The phase out and closure of camps for displaced people a guideline

THE PHASE-OUT AND CLOSURE OF CAMPS FOR DISPLACED PEOPLE – A GUIDELINE

  • PREPARED BY THE GLOBAL CAMP CO-ORDINATION AND CAMP MANAGEMENT CLUSTER


Emergency shelter environmental impact assessment and action checklist

Emergency Shelter Environmental Impact Assessment and Action Checklist

Identifying Critical Environmental Considerations in Shelter Site Selection, Construction, Management and Decommissioning


Tools and resources

Overview of the REA


The problem

The Problem

  • Environmental conditions often contribute to disasters.

  • Disasters can result in negative environmental impacts.

  • Relief aid can have positive or negative environmental impacts.

  • Lack of a systematic way to incorporate environmental impact assessment into disaster management.

+/-


Tools and resources

Review: What is the REA?

Guidelines for Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment in Disasters

  • REA is a rapid assessment tool to:

    • identify, define, prioritize environmental issues in disaster situations threatening HUMAN LIFE & WELFARE so that their effects can be minimized


Tools and resources

The REA is…

  • Simple and rapid…

  • Designed for use in natural, technological and/or political disasters

  • A useful way to organize and make sense of environmental information available in disasters

  • A consensus-based qualitative assessment process

  • Used to identify follow-up actions during a disaster (… Not a tool which provides answers on how to resolve environmental issues)


Tools and resources

REA and EIA…

  • REA does not replace an Environmental Impact Assessment

  • REA fills a gap when an EIA process can’t be used (disasters, rapidly changing situations).

  • REA results can serve as a “scoping” assessment for an EIA

  • REA results can set a baseline for EIA data analysis


Tools and resources

WhyRAPID?

  • Those who respond to disasters have little time for in depth research and are not likely to be environmental specialist.

  • Actions must be taken quickly and can’t wait for a lengthy, quantitative and thorough assessment process


4 modules 11 tasks of rea

4 Modules & 11 Tasks of REA

  • Organization Level Assessment

  • Community Level Assessment

  • Consolidation and Analysis(of 1 + 2)

    4. Green Review of Relief Procurement

See “table” page v in Guidelines.


Tools and resources

Module I

Module II

Organization Level

Module III

Assessment

Community Level

Consolidation and

Assessment:

Task 11

Analysis

Task 1

Context Statement

Module IV

Consolidate the

Task 2

Factors Influencing

Task 6

Task 7

+

Issues

Environmental

Review

Action

Based on

Impacts

information

Identify Critical

Procurement

Task 8

collected directly

Task 3

Environmental Threats

Issues and Actions

from communities

of Disasters

or from secondary

Prioritize Issues

Task 9

Task 4

sources.

Unmet Basic Needs

and Actions

Negative

Environmental

Task 10

Task 5

Environmental

Consequences of

Consequences of

Relief Activities

Relief Activities

Review

The REA Process

Green

Assessment

Summary Form

of Relief

Community

See Session 2.3 in your “Workbook”


Tools and resources

Organization Level Assessment

The Context

National Geophysical Data Center


Factors influencing environmental impact

Factors InfluencingEnvironmental Impact

Spatial, social, cultural, economic conditions of affected populations


Environmental threats of disasters

Environmental Threats of Disasters

Cyclones / Floods?

In addition to the immediate loss of lives and damage to buildings, what are secondary environmental threats or hazards that may further imperil human life, health, welfare and/or their environment

PAHO photo – Dom. Rep.

  • Salination and sedimentation ruin agricultural land

  • Damage to chemical plants, rivers carrying pesticides, toxic materials

  • Destruction of wooded areas creates future flooding hazard


Tools and resources

Unmet Basic Needs

What are typical basic needs in disasters?

In REA “Unmet basic needs” we are concerned with: Basic needs which are not being met which result in survivors turning to their surrounding environment to extract from it what they need.


Tools and resources

Unmet Basic Needs - Tsunami

What are some of the unmet basic needs of this disaster?

Which of these may result in survivors extracting from their environment to meet their unmet needs?


Tools and resources

Negative Environmental

Consequences of Disaster Relief

For example, negative environmental consequences of refugee camps?

UNEP Photo, Radusa refugee camp, Macedonia 1999 – Nearby Waste Disposal Area

e.g. Camps: plastic & packaging waste, waste disposal site, latrines fill up, then what?

Sanitation and water quality issues


Community level assessment

Community Level Assessment

Identifies critical environmental issues related to the disaster from the perspective of communities and groups affected by the disaster.

Why do it? How?


Rea rating forms

REA Rating Forms

Organizational Level Assessment Templates and Forms

“Community Level Assessment Form”

Issues Consolidation Table

Issues and Action Table


What do we do with all data

What do we do with all data?

Module 3: Consolidation and Analysis

Consolidation and analysis of

- Organizational Level Assessment and

- Community Level Assessment

Identifies and prioritizes environmentally-linked issues involving significant immediate threat to lives, well being and the environment


Tools and resources

REA Outcome: Priorities & Actions

Focus of the REA is to identify and prioritize environmental issues resulting from the disaster and disaster response which pose an IMMEDIATE threat to life, welfare or the environment

  • Re-design or reorient the existing relief and recovery efforts

  • Design new projects

  • Advocate for action

  • Identify where additional information or specialized assessment is required before deciding on actions

Issues which do not pose an immediate threat to life, welfare or environment will need to be addressed during a longer-term recovery phase


Green review of relief procurement

Green Review of Relief Procurement

Screens procurement of relief commodities and services to minimize negative environmental impacts.


Tools and resources

Module I

Module II

Organization Level

Module III

Assessment

Community Level

Consolidation and

Assessment:

Task 11

Analysis

Task 1

Context Statement

Module IV

Consolidate the

Task 2

Factors Influencing

Task 6

Task 7

+

Issues

Environmental

Review

Action

Based on

Impacts

information

Identify Critical

Procurement

Task 8

collected directly

Task 3

Environmental Threats

Issues and Actions

from communities

of Disasters

or from secondary

Prioritize Issues

Task 9

Task 4

sources.

Unmet Basic Needs

and Actions

Negative

Environmental

Task 10

Task 5

Environmental

Consequences of

Consequences of

Relief Activities

Relief Activities

Review

The REA:Any questions? Clarifications?

Green

Assessment

Summary Form

of Relief

Community

See Session 2.3 in your “Workbook”


Negative environmental consequences of relief

Exercise

Negative Environmental Consequences of Relief


Exercise objectives

Exercise Objectives

  • Complete Rating Form 4 “Negative Environmental Consequences of Relief Activities”

  • Identify which relief interventions may create negative environmental consequences

  • Propose general mitigation / prevention options to respond to the environmental threats


The rea process

Module I

Organization Level

Module II

Module III

Assessment

Consolidation and

Community Level

Task 11

Analysis

Assessment:

Context Statement

Task 1

Module IV

Consolidate the

Factors Influencing

Task 7

Task 2

Green

Task 6

Issues

Environmental

+

Community

Review

Action

Impacts

of Relief

Assessment

Identify Critical

Procurement

Task 8

Summary Form

Environmental Threats

Issues and Actions

Task 3

of Disasters

Based on

Prioritize Issues

Task 9

Unmet Basic Needs

information

and Actions

Task 4

collected directly

Negative

from communities

Environmental

Task 10

Environmental

Task 5

or from secondary

Consequences of

Consequences of

sources.

Relief Activities

Relief Activities

Review

The REA Process


This form

This form…

…provides a way to quickly recognize and mitigate negative environmental impacts of disaster relief activities


Tools and resources

Negative Environmental Consequences of Disaster Relief


Tools and resources

What happens to all the shrink-wrap and packaging?


Tools and resources

Kagera, Tanzania, 1996

Firewood consumption: 1200 ton/day

Forest affected: 570 km2

Deforested area:167 km2


Tools and resources

Flooding caused by clearing forested area for temporary emergency settlement


How to identify potential negative environmental consequences

yes

no

yes

How to identify potential negative environmental consequences

Complete Rating Form 4

Step 1: determine if possible intervention is underway or planned.


How to identify potential negative environmental consequences1

yes

yes

no

no

no

yes

How to identify potential negative environmental consequences

Step 2: determine if potential negative consequences have been addressed


How to identify potential negative environmental consequences2

How to identify potential negative environmental consequences

Step 3: identify which of the interventions

  • should be changed to avoid negative impacts

  • need to be implemented despite negative impacts

  • should be canceled or avoided due to possible negative impacts


An identification of negative impacts of relief assistance

An identification of negative impacts of relief assistance…

can lead to three outcomes:

  • postpone or cancel relief action if it results in environmental damage

  • change ongoing activities to incorporate environmental impact mitigation or avoidance measures

  • accept negative environmental impacts as unavoidable and preferable to no assistance

    Which action is preferred?


Tools and resources

Exercise: Negative Environmental Consequences of Relief Activities

Objective: Identify and prioritize negative environmental consequences of relief activities

  • Turn to the instructions for this step in your handout.

  • Begin by reading the case study and reviewing the content on rating form 4.

  • Complete rating form 4 following the steps outlined earlier and making any assumptions that you must.

  • After completing the form, in your groups, select the top three priority negative environmental consequences and enter these in the corresponding section of your group’s “Issues Consolidation Table.”

15 minutes to complete


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