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AIRMANSHIP. Click on ‘F5’ to start. AIRMANSHIP. Chapter 1 Air Traffic Control. Contents List. Click on a chapter. Chapter 2 Rules of the Air. exit. AIRMANSHIP. Chapter 1 Air Traffic Control. Return to contents list. exit. Air Traffic Control.

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airmanship

AIRMANSHIP

Click on ‘F5’ to start.

airmanship1

AIRMANSHIP

Chapter 1 Air Traffic Control.

Contents List.

Click on a chapter.

Chapter 2 Rules of the Air.

exit

airmanship2

AIRMANSHIP

Chapter 1

Air Traffic Control.

Return to contents list

exit

slide4

Air Traffic Control

The Air Traffic Control Tower houses the people who monitor aircraft on the ground and in the air in the vicinity of the airfield.

slide5

Air Traffic Control

The Airfield Controller controls the movement of both vehicles and aircraft in the airfield’s ground manoeuvring area and aircraft in the circuit.

He (or she) works in a glass walled room at the top of the control tower.

slide6

Air Traffic Control

Aircraft outside the circuit, but within the airfield’s area of responsibility are handled by the Approach Controller.

They work from radar screens and control aircraft departing and arriving, and those on instrument appoaches.

slide7

Air Traffic Control

Other controllers responsible for the safety of aircraft flying between airfields are located at Air Traffic Control Centres (ATCC’s) or Air Traffic Control Radar Units (ATCRU’s).

Neither ATCC’s or ATCRU’s are necessarily located on airfields.

slide8

Air Traffic Control

Busy training airfields often have a Runway Controller near the touchdown point. He will check that landing gear is down and look for fluid leaks on departing aircraft.

The runway controller works from a red and white chequered caravan similar to the one in the picture.

slide9

Air Traffic Control

Good communication between airfield control towers, ATCC’s and ATCRU’s are vital.

All are liked by telephone landlines known as the Defence Fixed Telecommunication System (DFTS).

slide10

Air Traffic Control

Helicopter landing areas are identified with a large letter ‘H’.

slide11

Airfield Hazards – Obstruction Markers

Stationary hazards on airfields are marked with a yellow three-sided solid mounted on a pole with a round base.

slide12

Airfield Hazards – Bad Ground

At airfields where taxiing on the grass is permitted, bad ground is identified by one of three methods:

slide13

Airfield Hazards – Bad Ground

A white canvas marker with a red band.

slide14

Airfield Hazards – Bad Ground

A yellow and black striped solid.

slide15

Airfield Hazards – Bad Ground

Yellow flags on light stakes.

slide16

Aviation Radio Aids

RADAR, which stands for RAdio Detection And Ranging, is a system of locating aircraft by transmitting a pulse of electromagnetic energy and picking up the small ‘echo’ reflected back from the aircraft.

slide17

Aviation Radio Aids

DRDF stands for ‘Digital Resolution Direction Finding’. As a radio transmission is received from an aircraft the direction from which the signal is received is displayed on a cathode ray tube. This is passed to the pilot as a course to steer for the airfield.

slide18

Aviation Radio Aids

ILS stands for Instrument Landing System. Fixed transmitters on the airfield send out signals which define a ‘pathway’ for the aircraft to follow.

slide19

Aviation Radio Aids

The ILS signals enable the pilot to fly down the beam until touchdown without assistance from the controller.

slide20

Aviation Radio Aids

Precision Approach Radar (PAR) gives the approach controller a radar picture of the aircraft on final approach. From this information he gives instructions to the pilot to fly the correct glideslope and runway centre line until touchdown.

For obvious reasons this procedure is called a Ground Controlled Approach (GCA).

slide21

Airways and Controlled Airspace

Large airfields have ‘zones’ where air traffic is strictly controlled. These air traffic control zones are linked by aerial pathways called ‘airways’.

slide22

Airways and Controlled Airspace

Airways are between 10 and 20 nautical miles wide.

The centre of the airways are marked by navigational beacons so that aircraft can route along them accurately.

slide23

Airways and Controlled Airspace

The requirements for using an airway are:

1. The pilot must have a valid instrument rating.

2. The aircraft is fitted with appropriate radio and navigational equipment.

3. The flight is made in accordance with the rules.

slide24

Joining and Crossing Airways

Radio contact with the appropriate Air Traffic Control Centre (ATCC) must be made before joining or crossing an airway.

slide25

Crossing Airways

If the base of an airway is above ground level it is permissible to fly underneath it.

Alternatively, a pilot may fly through under radar control from the appropriate ATC Radar Unit (ATCRU).

airmanship3

AIRMANSHIP

Chapter 2

Rules of the Air.

Return to contents list

exit

slide27

Rights of Way

There are four main types of aircraft:

Balloons

Gliders

Airships

Powered Conventional Aircraft.

slide28

Rights of Way

Balloons cannot be steered.

They cannot be manoeuvred to avoid a collision.

Allother types of aircraft must give way to them.

slide29

Rights of Way

Gliders are fairly maneuverable but:

their airspeed is low and they do not have engines.

Gliders have the right of way over powered aircraft and airships.

slide30

Rights of Way

Airships are slow but maneuverable.

They have the benefit of engines to help them climb.

Airships must give way to both gliders and balloons.

slide31

Rights of Way

Conventional powered aircraft are by far the most maneuverable.

They must give way to balloons, gliders and airships.

slide32

Rights of Way

When two aircraft are approaching head on:

each must alter course to the right.

slide33

Rights of Way

When two aircraft are on converging courses:

the aircraft which has the other on its right must give way.

slide34

Rights of Way

An aircraft being overtaken has right of way.

The one overtaking must avoid the other by turning right.

slide35

Navigation Lights

At night aircraft carry lights for identification.

A balloon carries one red light below the basket.

slide36

Navigation Lights

Aircraft, gliders and airships carry red, green and white lights.

Red on the port wingtip, green on the starboard and white on the tail.

slide37

Avoiding Other Aircraft

Communicating accurately with other crew about the location of other aircraft and hazards is essential.

The ‘Clock Code’ system is recognised by all pilots.

slide38

Avoiding Other Aircraft

12 o’clock

Imagine a clock face around the aircraft to specify direction.

9 o’clock

3 o’clock

High, low or level will further clarify the location of the other aircraft as above, below or at the same height.

6 o’clock

airmanship4

AIRMANSHIP

Key Revision Topics

Chapters 1 and 2 completed.

airmanship5
Airmanship

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