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AIRMANSHIP. Click on ‘F5’ to start. AIRMANSHIP. Chapter 1 Air Traffic Control. Contents List. Click on a chapter. Chapter 2Rules of the Air. exit. AIRMANSHIP. Chapter 1 Air Traffic Control. Return to contents list. exit. Air Traffic Control.

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AIRMANSHIP

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AIRMANSHIP

Click on ‘F5’ to start.


AIRMANSHIP

Chapter 1 Air Traffic Control.

Contents List.

Click on a chapter.

Chapter 2Rules of the Air.

exit


AIRMANSHIP

Chapter 1

Air Traffic Control.

Return to contents list

exit


Air Traffic Control

The Air Traffic Control Tower houses the people who monitor aircraft on the ground and in the air in the vicinity of the airfield.


Air Traffic Control

The Airfield Controller controls the movement of both vehicles and aircraft in the airfield’s ground manoeuvring area and aircraft in the circuit.

He (or she) works in a glass walled room at the top of the control tower.


Air Traffic Control

Aircraft outside the circuit, but within the airfield’s area of responsibility are handled by the Approach Controller.

They work from radar screens and control aircraft departing and arriving, and those on instrument appoaches.


Air Traffic Control

Other controllers responsible for the safety of aircraft flying between airfields are located at Air Traffic Control Centres (ATCC’s) or Air Traffic Control Radar Units (ATCRU’s).

Neither ATCC’s or ATCRU’s are necessarily located on airfields.


Air Traffic Control

Busy training airfields often have a Runway Controller near the touchdown point. He will check that landing gear is down and look for fluid leaks on departing aircraft.

The runway controller works from a red and white chequered caravan similar to the one in the picture.


Air Traffic Control

Good communication between airfield control towers, ATCC’s and ATCRU’s are vital.

All are liked by telephone landlines known as the Defence Fixed Telecommunication System (DFTS).


Air Traffic Control

Helicopter landing areas are identified with a large letter ‘H’.


Airfield Hazards – Obstruction Markers

Stationary hazards on airfields are marked with a yellow three-sided solid mounted on a pole with a round base.


Airfield Hazards – Bad Ground

At airfields where taxiing on the grass is permitted, bad ground is identified by one of three methods:


Airfield Hazards – Bad Ground

A white canvas marker with a red band.


Airfield Hazards – Bad Ground

A yellow and black striped solid.


Airfield Hazards – Bad Ground

Yellow flags on light stakes.


Aviation Radio Aids

RADAR, which stands for RAdio Detection And Ranging, is a system of locating aircraft by transmitting a pulse of electromagnetic energy and picking up the small ‘echo’ reflected back from the aircraft.


Aviation Radio Aids

DRDF stands for ‘Digital Resolution Direction Finding’. As a radio transmission is received from an aircraft the direction from which the signal is received is displayed on a cathode ray tube. This is passed to the pilot as a course to steer for the airfield.


Aviation Radio Aids

ILS stands for Instrument Landing System. Fixed transmitters on the airfield send out signals which define a ‘pathway’ for the aircraft to follow.


Aviation Radio Aids

The ILS signals enable the pilot to fly down the beam until touchdown without assistance from the controller.


Aviation Radio Aids

Precision Approach Radar (PAR) gives the approach controller a radar picture of the aircraft on final approach. From this information he gives instructions to the pilot to fly the correct glideslope and runway centre line until touchdown.

For obvious reasons this procedure is called a Ground Controlled Approach (GCA).


Airways and Controlled Airspace

Large airfields have ‘zones’ where air traffic is strictly controlled. These air traffic control zones are linked by aerial pathways called ‘airways’.


Airways and Controlled Airspace

Airways are between 10 and 20 nautical miles wide.

The centre of the airways are marked by navigational beacons so that aircraft can route along them accurately.


Airways and Controlled Airspace

The requirements for using an airway are:

1. The pilot must have a valid instrument rating.

2. The aircraft is fitted with appropriate radio and navigational equipment.

3. The flight is made in accordance with the rules.


Joining and Crossing Airways

Radio contact with the appropriate Air Traffic Control Centre (ATCC) must be made before joining or crossing an airway.


Crossing Airways

If the base of an airway is above ground level it is permissible to fly underneath it.

Alternatively, a pilot may fly through under radar control from the appropriate ATC Radar Unit (ATCRU).


AIRMANSHIP

Chapter 2

Rules of the Air.

Return to contents list

exit


Rights of Way

There are four main types of aircraft:

Balloons

Gliders

Airships

Powered Conventional Aircraft.


Rights of Way

Balloons cannot be steered.

They cannot be manoeuvred to avoid a collision.

Allother types of aircraft must give way to them.


Rights of Way

Gliders are fairly maneuverable but:

their airspeed is low and they do not have engines.

Gliders have the right of way over powered aircraft and airships.


Rights of Way

Airships are slow but maneuverable.

They have the benefit of engines to help them climb.

Airships must give way to both gliders and balloons.


Rights of Way

Conventional powered aircraft are by far the most maneuverable.

They must give way to balloons, gliders and airships.


Rights of Way

When two aircraft are approaching head on:

each must alter course to the right.


Rights of Way

When two aircraft are on converging courses:

the aircraft which has the other on its right must give way.


Rights of Way

An aircraft being overtaken has right of way.

The one overtaking must avoid the other by turning right.


Navigation Lights

At night aircraft carry lights for identification.

A balloon carries one red light below the basket.


Navigation Lights

Aircraft, gliders and airships carry red, green and white lights.

Red on the port wingtip, green on the starboard and white on the tail.


Avoiding Other Aircraft

Communicating accurately with other crew about the location of other aircraft and hazards is essential.

The ‘Clock Code’ system is recognised by all pilots.


Avoiding Other Aircraft

12 o’clock

Imagine a clock face around the aircraft to specify direction.

9 o’clock

3 o’clock

High, low or level will further clarify the location of the other aircraft as above, below or at the same height.

6 o’clock


AIRMANSHIP

Key Revision Topics

Chapters 1 and 2 completed.


Airmanship

PMT

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