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Foraging Strategies. K.Launchbaugh. K.Launchbaugh. BLM Photo. K.Launchbaugh. Plants Stationary Abundant Lo energy & time Hi success 10,000 bites/day Hi Intake. Animals Mobile Rare Hi energy & time Lo success Few prey/day Lo intake. Herbivore Carnivore. Food Source.

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Foraging strategies

Foraging Strategies

K.Launchbaugh

K.Launchbaugh

BLM Photo

K.Launchbaugh


Herbivore carnivore

Plants

Stationary

Abundant

Lo energy & time

Hi success

10,000 bites/day

Hi Intake

Animals

Mobile

Rare

Hi energy & time

Lo success

Few prey/day

Lo intake

Herbivore Carnivore

Food Source

Food Capture


Herbivore carnivore1

Lo & variable in protein & energy

High fiber in cell wall

Hi & uniform in protein & energy

No fiber or cell wall

Herbivore Carnivore

Food Quality


Herbivore carnivore2

Much chewing

Complex digestive tract

Energy & protein from microbial fermentation

Little chewing

Simple digestive tract

Energy & protein from catabolism

Herbivore Carnivore

Digesting food


Mammalian Digestive Systems

Carnivore

No

Omnivore

Some

Herbivore

Yes

Can Animal Digest Cellulose?


Omnivore

Herbivore

Carnivore


Ruminant Feeding Types

From: Hofmann, R. R. 1989. Evolutionary steps of ecophysical adaptation and diversification of ruminants: A comparative view of their digestive system. Oecologia 78:443-457.


Diet preferences
Diet Preferences

  • How animals meet nutrient needs

Concentrate Feeder (browse)

Intermediate Feeder (forbs)

Roughage Feeder (grass)


Example 1 grassy pasture
Example 1 - Grassy Pasture

  • Similarity between pasture and cattle diet = 94%

  • Similarity between pasture and sheep diet = 83%


Example 2 shrubby pasture
Example 2 – Shrubby Pasture

  • Similarity between pasture and cattle diet = 69%

  • Similarity between pasture and goat diet = 80%



Multi species grazing1
Multi Species Grazing

Multi-species grazing is when more than one kind of livestock (i.e. sheep, goats, cattle, or horses) graze a unit of land.

The grazing can occur at the same time or at different times and still be considered multispecies grazing.

Multi-species grazing is the norm for naturally regulated ecosystems grazed by a variety of herbivores.


Advantages of multi species livestock grazing over single species grazing include
Advantages of multi-species livestock grazing over single-species grazing include?

Increased carrying capacity.

Improved botanical composition of pastures

Suppression of undesirable plants

Increased individual animal performance of one or more species in the mix.

Improved animal health --parasite problems are often reduced.


Advantages of multi species livestock grazing over single species grazing include1
Advantages of multi-species livestock grazing over single-species grazing include?

Reduced predation of sheep or goats grazing among or bonded to cattle.

Greater net return for the ranch.

Improved cash flow -- marketing different products at different times of the year.

Reduced financial risk --increased enterprise diversity.


Major challenges to multi species grazing
Major challenges to multi-species grazing: single-species grazing include?

Increased fencing requirements – if sheep and goats are added to cattle or horse pastures.

Lack of knowledge of animal husbandry for a variety of species.

Increased complexity because of enterprise diversity.

Potential disease transmission from sheep to cattle. (Sheep are the unaffected carrier and cattle are affected.)


Domestic Grazers single-species grazing include?Diets of Grass , Forb & Browse


Wild Grazers single-species grazing include?Diets of Grass , Forb & Browse


Domestic & Wild Grazers single-species grazing include?


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