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n. International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment. p. m. MICE. Why MICE? 2. Measurement 3. Prototyping 4. MICE at RAL 5. schedule. Why MICE?. Based on Muon collider ideas and development (Palmer et al, 92->), the Neutrino Factory concept (Geer, 1998) resonated in 1998 with the

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Mice

n

International

Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

p

m

MICE

  • Why MICE?

  • 2. Measurement

  • 3. Prototyping

  • 4. MICE at RAL

  • 5. schedule


Mice

Why MICE?

Based on Muon collider ideas and development (Palmer et al, 92->),

the Neutrino Factory concept (Geer, 1998) resonated in 1998 with the

final demonstration of Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations by the SuperK Collaboration.

International workshops:

NUFACT 99 (Lyon, France)

NUFACT 00 (Montery, California)

NUFACT 01 (Tsukuba, Japan)

NUFACT 02 (London, UK)

NUFACT 03 (Columbia,NY,USA)

NUFACT 04 (Osaka, Japan)

NUFACT 05 (italy?)

 Neutrino Factory

is the ultimate tool for study

of Neutrino Oscillations

-- unique source of high energy ne

--reach/sensitivity better by

order(s) of magnitude wrt other

techniques (e.g. super-beams) for

_

m+ e+ne nm

* q13*

** matter effects **

*** leptonic CP violation ***

****ne  nm andnt****

NB : leptonic CP violation is a key ingredient

in the leading explanations for the mystery of

the baryon-antibaryon asymmetry in our universe


Where will this get us

Where will this get us…

X 5

0.10

130

2.50

50

10

Mezzetto

comparison of reach in the oscillations; right to left:

present limit from the CHOOZ experiment,

expected sensitivity from the MINOS experiment,CNGS (OPERA+ICARUS)

0.75 MW JHF to super Kamiokande with an off-axis narrow-band beam,

Superbeam: 4 MW CERN-SPL to a 400 kt water Cerenkov@ Fréjus (J-PARC phase II similar)

Neutrino Factory with 40 kton large magnetic detector.


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3 sigma sensitivity of various options

NUFACT

Superbeam only

Beta-beam only

Betabeam

+ superbeam

Upgrade

400kton-> 1 Mton

J-PARC HK

540 kton?


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Neutrino Factory studies and R&D

USA, Europe, Japan have each their scheme. Only one has been costed, US study II:

+ detector: MINOS * 10 = about 300 M€ or M$

Neutrino Factory CAN be done…..but it is too expensive as is.

Aim: ascertain challenges can be met + cut cost in half.


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  • Particle physicist:

  • Q: Can a Neutrino Factory be built?

  • Accelerator physisicst:

  • A: YES! (US study II, CERN)

  • but… it is expensive,

  • and many ingredients

  • have never been demonstrated!

  •  R&D is needed. (est. 5yrs)

  • to

  • reduce cost and

  • ascertain performance

  • among critical items:

  • *** COOLING ***

Cooling component development programme:

MUCOOL collabration (US-Japan-UK)


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IONIZATION COOLING

principle:

reality (simplified)

this will surely work..!

….maybe…

  • A delicate technology and integration problem

    Need to build a realistic prototype and verify that it works (i.e. cools a beam)

    Difficulties lay in particular in

  • operating RF cavities in Mag. Field,

  • interface with SC magnets and LH2 absorbers

    What performance can one get?

Difficulty:affordable prototype of cooling section only cools beam by 10%,

while standard emittance measurements barely achieve this precision.

Solution: measure the beam particle-by-particle

RF Noise!!

state-of-the-art particle physics instrumentation

will test state-of-the-art accelerator technology.


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ECFA recommendations (September 2001:)

MUTAC ( 14-15 jan 2003)(US)

The committee remains convinced that this experiment, which is absolutely required to

validate the concept of ionization cooling, and the R&D leading to it should be the

highest priority of the muon collaboration. Planning and design for the experiment have

advanced dramatically(…)

EMCOG: (6 feb 2003) (Europe)

(…)EMCOG was impressed by the quality of the experiment, which has been well studied,

is well organized and well structured. The issue of ionization cooling is critical and this

justifies the important effort that the experiment represents.

EMCOG recommends very strongly a timely realization of MICE.

MUTAC: Muon Technical Advisory Committee (Helen Edwards, et al) (US)

EMCOG: European Muon Coordination and Oversight Group (C. Wyss et al)


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MICE is part of a international concerted effort of R&D towards a Neutrino Factory.

It is one of the four priorities set up by EMCOG

European Muon Coordination and Oversight Group

-- High intensity proton driver

-- High power target

-- high rep rate collection system (horns, solenoid)

-- Ionization coolng demonstration

These will correspond to the workpackages of the

ECFA/ESGARD superbeam/neutrino factory feasibility study * 

(package for detector R&D will be added!)

The contribution of experimenters in MICE is justified and necessary given the difficulty of the measurement.

In addition it fulfills the ECFA recommendation to increase education in accelerator physics, and builds a community of people who would be able to understand and operate the real system


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Superbeam/neutrino Factory design study (sub 2004)

Neutrino factory

The ultimate tool

for neutrino oscillations

SPL

HIPPI

Superbeam

EURISOL design study (sub 2004)

APEC design study (sub 2005)

Very large underground lab

Water Cerenkov, Liq.Arg

Beta beam

EURISOL

SPL physics workshop: 25-26 May 2004 at CERN

 CERN SPSC Cogne meeting sept. 2004


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An International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE)

Summary

The aims of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment are:

To show that it is possible to design, engineer and build a section of cooling channel capable of giving the desired performance for a Neutrino Factory;

To place it in a muon beam and measure its performance in a variety of modes of operation and beam conditions.

The MICE collaboration has designed an experiment where a section of an ionisation cooling channel is exposed to a muon beam and reduces its transverse emittance by 10% for muon momenta between 140 and 240 MeV/c.

The beam never lies

The experiment has been called for, recommended and APPROVED….

… conditional to proper funding and support.

Under these same assumptions,

ionization cooling of muons will be demonstrated by 2008


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10% cooling of 200 MeV/c muons requires ~ 20 MV of RF

single particle measurements =>

measurement precision can be as good as D ( e out/e in ) = 10-3

never done before either….

Coupling Coils 1&2

Spectrometer

solenoid 1

Matching

coils 1&2

Matching

coils 1&2

Spectrometer

solenoid 2

Focus coils 1

Focus coils 2

Focus coils 3

m

Beam PID

TOF 0

Cherenkov

TOF 1

RF cavities 1

RF cavities 2

Downstream

particle ID:

TOF 2

Cherenkov

Calorimeter

Diffusers 1&2

Liquid Hydrogen absorbers 1,2,3

Incoming muon beam

Trackers 1 & 2

measurement of emittance in and out


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Responsibilities as

stated in proposal

(Hardware)


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Quantities to be measured in a cooling experiment

cooling effect at nominal input

emittance ~10%

Acceptance: beam of 5cm

and 120 mrad rms

equilibrium emittance = 2.5 mm.radian

curves for 23 MV, 3 full absorbers, particles on crest


Emittance measurement

Emittance measurement

Each spectrometer measures 6 parameters per particle

x y t

x’ = dx/dz = Px/Pz y’ = dy/dz = Py/Pz t’ = dt/dz =E/Pz

Determines, for an ensemble (sample) of N particles, the moments:

Averages <x> <y> etc…

Second moments: variance(x) sx2 = < x2 - <x>2 > etc…

covariance(x) sxy = < x.y - <x><y> >

Covariance matrix

M =

Getting at e.g. sx’t’

is essentially impossible

with multiparticle bunch

measurements

Compare ein with eout

Evaluate emittance with:


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G4MICE simulation of Muon traversing MICE


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  • requirements on spectrometer system:

  • must be sure particles considered are muons throughout

  • 1.a reject incoming e, p, p

  • => TOF 2 stations 10 m flight with 70 ps resolution

  • 1.b reject outgoing e => Cerenkov + Calorimeter

  • 2. measure 6 particle parameters

  • i.e. x,y,t, px/pz , py/pz ,E/pz

  • 3. measure widths and correlations …

  • resolution in all parameters must be better than 10% of width

  • at equilibrium emittance (correction less than 1%)

  • s2meas = s2true+ s2res = s2true [ 1+ (sres/ strue)2 ] (n.b. these are r.m.s.!)

  • 4. robust against noise from RF cavities

=>

Statistical precision

105 muons  D( e out/ ein )= 10-3 in ~ 1 hour

Systematics!!!!


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tracking in a solenoid:

B

  • Baseline tracker

  • 5 planes of scintillating fiber tracker

  • with 3 double layers.

  • passive detector + fast

  • good for RF noise

    Very small fibers needed to reduce MS

    Little light  VLPC readout (D0 experience)


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TRANSVERSE MOMENTUM RESOLUTION OK

RESULTS

Pz resolution degrades at low pt :

resolution in E/Pz is much better behaved

measurement rms is 4% of beam rms


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Tracker R&D

The prototype

Sci-fi: a prototype of 3

out of 5 stations

(3 double planes each)

Was bulit and tested at

D0 test stand

Analysis in progress.

A ‘typical’ cosmic ray track

Fiber feed-throughs


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MICE tracker back-up option:

TPC with GEM readout.

250 microns pads

connected in 3 sets of strips

1st Prototype being built

difficulties:

Long time constant

RF photons on the GEMs?

RF noise?


Rf test setup tpg in linaciii at cern

RF test setup – TPG in LinacIII at CERN

detector to RF tanks ~30cm

Detector back to RF power supply ~1m

L.V. power supply

H.V. power supply

GEM DETECTOR


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Noise with RF:

no sign of effect on GEMS

Fe55

55Fe pulse

height:

~300mV

Noise: ~40mV!

Zoomed signal

signal


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Backgrounds

real background

reduced by factor

L/X0(H2) . L/X0(det)

0.07 0.0026

measured dark currents

  • Extrapolation to MICE (201 MHz):

  • scale rates as (area.energy) X 100

  • and apply above reduction factor 2 10-4

  • 4 104 Hz/cm2 @ 8 MV/m @805 MHz

  • 0.8 kHz/cm2 per sci-fi

  • 500 kHz/plane (gate is 20ns)

    ! within  one order of magnitude !

Dark current backgrounds measured

on a 805 MHz cavity in magnetic field!

with a 1mm scintillating fiber at d=O(1m)


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RF cavity (800 MHz) at Fermilab

being pushed to its limits (35 MV/m)

to study dark current emission in magnetic field. Sees clear enhancement due to B field.

Various diagnostics methods

photographic paper, scintillating fibers

Microscope ------

BCT and solid state counters

have demonstrated this and allowed precise

measurements

Real cavities will be equipped with Be windows

Which do not show sign of being pitted contrary to Cu


Absorber coil assembly

Absorber/Coil Assembly

Absorber is interchangeable,

can be repaired or

changed to solid absorber.


Lh2 window r d iit niu icar

LH2 Window R & D (IIT, NIU, ICAR)

Various shapes have been studied to

--reduce thickness

-- increase strength

-- Breaking point was measured!

Strain gages

~ 20 “points”

Shape measurement at FNAL

Pressure tests at NIU

Photogrammetry ~1000 points


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Absorber II

Absorber body will be built at KEK

2 prototypes have been built

Third one according to

Safety-compliant design

safety review 9-10 dec. 2003


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RF module

MICE is foresen with 8 RF cavities

Closed with Be windows

(increase gradient / MW RF power)

201 MHz

First cavity prototyped

Completion in 2004

RF power sources :

Will be assembled from equipement refurbished

from Berkeley, Los Alamos, CERN, RAL.

Needed 8 MW peak power  23 MV acceleration

Operation at LN2 foreseen to increase Volts / MW


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First cavity shells

 have been produced

Similarly to LiH2 absorber windows, the

RF windows will be bell shaped to

minimize thickness (800 MHz prototype -


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INSTALLATION OF MICE at RAL


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Beam line will include a 5m long

5T solenoid from PSI (CH)


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H2 absorber

Hall has been emptied and preparations to host the experiment begun

Large amount of LiH2 from absorbers

requires efficient storage

Suggested solution: metallic hydride

Ventilation duct

Radiation

shielding

wall

H2

Buffer

Tank

(1m3 approx)

Vacuum jacket

H2

Storage

unit


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m

-

STEP I: spring 2006

STEP II: summer 2006

STEP III: winter 2007

STEP IV: spring 2007

STEP V: fall 2007

STEP VI:

2008


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November 2001: Letter of Intent (LOI) submitted to PSI and RAL

January 2002 Positive statements from PSI:

cannot host experiment, will collaborate (beam solenoid)

March 2002: LOI reviewed at RAL

June 2002: Review panel encouraged submission of a proposal.

January 2003: Proposal submitted to RAL

February 2003: EMCOG recommends timely realization of MICE

May 2003: International Peer review Panel strongly recommends

October 2003: Director(CE) of RAL approves experiment conditional to ‘gateways’… UK funding in the range of >~10 M£

December 9-10 Safety review to clear hydrogen safety design principle

… …

All seems very well!

-- MICE found a home

-- Host lab ans UK community enthusiastic

Next important steps:

Funding has to be secured from the international partners:

-- Japan ~OK

-- US request to NSF -> decision early 2004

-- request have or will be posted to CH, B, NL, Italy, CEA

New collaborators (esp. Accelerator physicists) welcome!

NEUTRINO COMMUNITY SHOULD SUPPORT THIS LONG TERM EFFORT!


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Time Line

If all goes well and funding is adequate, Muon Ionization cooling will have been

demonstrated and measured precisely by 2008

LHC/J-PARC start-up

At that time:

MINOS and CNGS will have started and mesured Dm132 more precisely

J-Parc-SK will be about to start (Q13 measurement)

LHC will be about to give results as well

It will be timely (…and not too soon!) to have by then

a design for a neutrino factory *), knowing the

practical feasibility of ionization cooling

*) plans: proposal of a Neutrino factory feasibility study to EU (2004-2007)

US Study III (2005 onwards)


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ECFA recommendations (September 2001:)

MUTAC ( 14-15 jan 2003)(US)

The committee remains convinced that this experiment, which is absolutely required to

validate the concept of ionization cooling, and the R&D leading to it should be the

highest priority of the muon collaboration. Planning and design for the experiment have

advanced dramatically(…)

EMCOG: (6 feb 2003) (Europe)

(…)EMCOG was impressed by the quality of the experiment, which has been well studied,

is well organized and well structured. The issue of ionization cooling is critical and this

justifies the important effort that the experiment represents.

EMCOG recommends very strongly a timely realization of MICE.

MUTAC: Muon Technical Advisory Committee (Helen Edwards, et al) (US)

EMCOG: European Muon Coordination and Oversight Group (C. Wyss et al)


Mice

  • High intensity proton driver. Activities on the front end are ongoing in many laboratories in Europe, in particular at CERN, CEA, IN2P3, INFN and GSI. Progressive installation of a high intensity injector and of a linear accelerator up to 120 MeV at CERN (R. Garoby et al) would have immediate rewards in the increase of intensity for the CERN fixed target program and for LHC operation. This (HIPPI) has received funding from EU!

  • 2.Target studiesproblem at 4 MW!!

  • . This experimental program is underway with liquid metal jet studies. Goal: explore synergies among the following parties involved: CERN, Lausanne, Megapie at PSI, EURISOL, etc…

  • Experiment at CERN under consideration by the collaboration. (H. Kirk et al)

  • 3.Horn studies.Problem at 50 Hz and 4 MW

  • A first horn prototype has been built and pulsed at low intensity. Mechanical properties measured (S. Gilardoni’s thesis, GVA)

  • 5 year program to reach high intensity, high rep rate pulsing, and study the radiation resistance of horns. Optimisation of horn shape. IN2P3 Orsay has become leading house for this. Collaborations to be sought with Saclay, PSI (for material research and fatigue under high stress in radiation environment)

  • Muon Ionization CoolingNever done!

  • A collaboration towards and International cooling experiment MICE has been established with the muon collaboration in United States and Japanese groups. There is a large interest from European groups in this experiment. Following the submission of a letter of Intent to PSI and RAL, the collaboration has prepared a full proposal at RAL.

  • Proposal has been strongly encouraged and large UK funding of 10M£ should be available.

  • PSI offers a solenoid for the muon beam line

  • CERN, which as already made large initial contributions in the concept of the experiment,

  • has earmarked some very precious hardware that could be recuperated. (RF! Cryo?)

  • More collaboration needed from European institutes outside UK.


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  • Participating institutes: (142 authors)

  • Belgium: Louvain La Neuve (Ghislain Gregoire)

  • Netherlands: NIKHEF amsterdam (Frank Linde)

  • INFN: Bari (Gabriella Catanesi) Frascati (Michele Castellano) Genova (Pasquale Fabbricatore)

  • Legnaro (Ugo Gastaldi) Milano (Maurizio Bonesini) Napoli (Giuseppe Osteria) ,

  • Padova (Mauro Mezetto) , Roma(Ludovico Tortora), Trieste (Marco Apollonio)

  • France DAPNIA, CEA Saclay (Jean-Michel Rey)

  • Switzerland: Geneva (Alain Blondel), ETH Zürich (André Rubbia), PSI (Claude Petitjean)

  • UK: Brunel (Paul Keyberd), Edimburg(Akram Khan, Glasgow (Paul Soler),

  • Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (Rob Edgecock), University of Oxford (Giles Barr),

  • Imperial College London (Ken Long), Liverpool (John Fry), Sheffield (Chris Booth)

  • CERN (Helmut Haseroth)

  • Russia Budker Institute Novosibirsk (Sasha Skrinsky) (+ Dubna, Lebedev under discussions)

  • Japan KEK (Shigeru Ishimoto), Osaka University(Yoshitaka Kuno)

  • USA Argonne National Laboratory (Jim Norem)

    • Brookhaven National Laboratory (Bob Palmer)

    • Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Steve Geer, Alan Bross)

    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Michael Zisman)

    • University of Iowa (Yasar Onel), Fairfield University (David Winn)

    • University of California Los Angeles (David Cline)

    • University of Mississippi (Don Summers)

    • U.C. Riverside, (Gail Hanson)

    • University of Chicago – Enrico Fermi Institute(Marco Oreglia)

    • Northern Illinois University (Mary Anne Cummings)

    • Illinois Institute of Technology (Danial Kaplan)

    • Jefferson Lab (Bob Rimmer)


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  • International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

  • Organization:

  • Executive Board

  • A. Blondel1 (University of Geneva) P. Drumm5 (RAL), R. Edgecock (RAL), V. Palladino

  • H. Haseroth (CERN), K. Long (ICL, London) I. Ivaniouchenkov2 (RAL)

  • Y. Kuno (Osaka University)

  • S. Geer (FNAL), D. Kaplan 3(Illinois Institute of Technology) M. Zisman (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory)

  • Y. Torun4 (Illinois Institute of Technology)

  • 1 spokesperson, 2 project engineer, 3deputy spokesperson, 4secretary, 5Technical coordinator

  • Technical Board..

Collaboration meetings 3 times a year: US,UK,EU, etc…

S.G. phone conf. every 2 weeks

Video Conferences every 2 weeks (not easy!)

Web site, copies of transparencies, MICE-Notes,

common software, speakers bureau, collaboration board (1/institute)


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COST TABLE and RESPONSIBILITIES

warning: assignment of tasks will be revised when cost savings are understood (decision on tracker) rebaselining of the experiment in march 2004.

possible cost savings

-- use refurbished RF from CERN: - 2500.- k€

-- use TPG or multiplex sci-fi tracker - 3000.- k€

-- use HARP electronics - 500.- k€

net cost if all savings apply: 19.2- M€(Re: LOI 17.8 M$)


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Time Lines

Time lines for the various items of MICE have been explored

– procurement delays and installation –

the critical items are solenoids and RF cavities.

(R&D being pursued on smaller and cheaper 805 MHz RF cavities)

This is consistent with the logistics of the beam line upgrade at RAL and of the various shut downs.

UK: funding has been prepared since a year

US: Proposal has been submitted to NSF

Italy: review of funding request on 15 March

Belgium and NL: request submitted

Switzerland: discussions in progress

CERN, PSI: hardware earmarked

etc…


Mice

Time Lines

Time lines for the various items of MICE have been explored

– procurement delays and installation –

the critical items are solenoids and RF cavities.

Tracher decision


Mice

Conclusions

There is no doubt that a Neutrino Factory is the ultimate tool to study neutrino oscillations and leptonic CP violation, and a first step towards muon colliders.

Can it be done?

Paper studies say Yes, but these are only paper studies… involving several new concepts, the newest being ionization cooling.

MICE aims at turning this new concept into an apparatus that works, with a community of people able to operate it, maintain it, improve it.

The MICE collaboration, supported by the enthusastic UK community, has designed an experiment based on a full cell of US studyII and a set of spectrometers to measure the emittance reduction of 10% with a precision of 10-3. It will also be capable of exploring a number of beam and optics conditions beyond the baseline.

The collaboration has organised responsibilities, and determined the costs and time line of the experiment. The crucial safety issues have been addressed and a solution is proposed that should be adequate. The large players have gone -- or are ready to go -- ask for funds.

If all goes well ionization cooling will have been demonstrated in 2008. This is very timely and …… not too soon!


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Further Explorations

We have defined a baseline MICE, which will measure the basic cooling

properties of the StudyII cooling channel with high precision, for a moderate

gradient of ~8 MV/m, with Liquid Hydrogen absorbers.

Many variants of the experiment can be tested.

1. other absorbers: Various fillings and thicknesses of LH2 can be envisaged

The bolted windows design allows different absorbers to be mounted.

2. other optics and momentum: nominal is 200 MeV/c and b = 42 cm.

Exploration of low b (down to a few cm at 140 MeV/c)

Exploration of momentum up to 240 MeV/c

will be possible by varying the currents.

3. the focus pairs provide a field reversal in the baseline configuration, but

they have been designed to operate also in no-flip mode which could have larger

acceptance both transversally and in momentum (Fanchetti et al)

(We are not sure this can be done because of stray fields…)

4. Higher gradients can be achieved on the cavities, either by running them

at liquid nitrogen temperature (the vessel is adequate for this) (gain 1.5-1.7)

or by connecting to the 8 MW RF only one of the two 4-cavity units (gain 1.4)


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