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Chapter 6. Loop Structures. Goals and Objectives. Identify loop structures. Implement an algorithm using iteration. Explain how infinite loops can occur. Differentiate between counters and accumulators.

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chapter 6

Chapter 6

Loop Structures

goals and objectives
Goals and Objectives
  • Identify loop structures.
  • Implement an algorithm using iteration.
  • Explain how infinite loops can occur.
  • Differentiate between counters and accumulators.
  • Employ techniques such as using a debugger, adding extra output statements, or hand-tracing code.
while statements
while Statements
  • while statement – is a loop structure.
  • Iteration – each time a loop repeats is call an iteration.
  • 3 parts of a loop
    • Priming the loop
    • Termination condition
    • Increment/decrement
  • Pre-Test loop – test the Boolean expression first before executing the loop.
  • Variable loop – loops varies on how many times it executes
the while statement
The while Statement
  • Loop structure that executes a set of statements as long as a condition is true
  • The condition is a Boolean expression
  • Will never execute if the condition is initially false
  • The loop below iterates once because the condition is true and then continues to iterate until response is not 1:response = 1; while (response == 1) {System.out.print("Enter 1 or 0:"); response = input.nextInt(); }
while loop example
while loop example

x = 5; // priming the loop

while ( x > 0)

{

x--;

System.out.println(x);

}

do while loops
do-while loops
  • Post test loop – the Boolean expression is evaluated at the end of the loop.
  • Variable loop – loop don’t always execute the same amount of time each time it runs.
the do while statement
The do-while Statement
  • Alternative form of the while statement
  • Executes at least once
  • The statementdo { System.out.print("Enter 1 or 0:"); response = input.nextInt(); } while (response == 1);iterates once and continues to iterate until response is not 1.
infinite loops
Infinite Loops
  • A loop that continues executing forever
  • Can be caused by syntax or logic errors. For example:while (num < 0) //error--no braces System.out.print("Enter a vale: "); num = input.nextInt();
  • Some errors can result in an overflow
counters
Counters
  • A variable that is incremented by a constant value
  • Often used for counting loop iterations
  • Should be initialized to 0 when declared
  • The counter in the loop counts the number of responses:do { System.out.print("Enter 1 or 0:"); response = input.nextInt(); numResponses += 1; } while (response == 1);
accumulators
Accumulators
  • A variable that is incremented by a varying amount
  • Often used for summing
  • Should be initialized to 0 when declared
  • The accumulator in the loop sums values:do { System.out.print("Enter grade:"); grade = input.nextInt(); sumOfGrades += grade; } while (grade != 999);
using flags
Using Flags
  • A flag, or sentinel, indicates when a loop should stop iterating
  • Often a constant
  • Code is easier to modify when sentinels are constants declared at the beginning of an application
  • A flag is used in the condition of the loop:final int STOP = 999; do {System.out.print("Enter grade:"); grade = input.nextInt();sumOfGrades += grade; } while (grade != STOP);
for loop statement
for loop statement
  • Pre-test loop – the Boolean expression is evaluated at the beginning of the loop.
  • Fixed loop – loop always execute the same amount of time each time it runs.
the for statement
The for Statement
  • Loop structure that executes a set of statements a fixed number of times
  • Uses a loop control variable (lcv)
  • The increment (++) or decrement (--) operators are used to change the value of the loop control variable
  • The loop below executes until i is greater than 10: for (int i = 0; i <= 10; i++) { sum += i; }
debugging techniques
Debugging Techniques
  • The debugger included with many compilers
  • Variable trace, which is a manual technique of list values of variables at the points of assignment
  • Additional println() statements for displaying variable values at points of assignment
  • "Commenting out" code to detect bugs through a process of elimination
variable trace
Variable Trace

int num1 = 0;int num2 = 0;while (num1 < 10) { if (num1 % 3 == 0) { num2 += num1;System.out.print(num2 + “ "); } num1 += 1;}

using println to debug
Using println() to Debug

int num1 = 0;int num2 = 0;System.out.println("num1 before while: " + num1); //debugwhile (num1 < 10) {System.out.println("num1 in while: " + num1); //debug if (num1 % 3 == 0) { num2 += num1;System.out.println("num2: " + num2); //debugSystem.out.print(num2 + " "); } num1 += 1;}

using comments to debug
Using Comments to Debug

int num1 = 0;int num2 = 0;while (num1 < 10) { //if (num1 % 3 == 0) { // num2 += num1; // System.out.print(num2 + " "); //} num1 += 1;}

pre post increment decrement
Pre & Post Increment/Decrement
  • variableName++; //Post increment
  • ++variableName; //Pre increment
  • variableName--; //Post decrement
  • --variableName; //Pre decrement
  • The difference between pre and post is when the variable gets incremented or decremented.
example pre post
Example Pre & Post

x = 0;

while(x<5)

System.out.println(x++);

  • Output  0,1,2,3,4
  • Example 2

x = 0;

while(x < 5)

System.out.println(++x)

  • Output  1,2,3,4,5
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