chapter 6
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Chapter 6

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 42

Chapter 6 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 315 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 6 Indian and South India Madras in southern India on the east coast Chennai means “the city” in Tamil. Brief History 2500-1700 BCE—Indus Valley cities 3 rd century BCE—countless kingdoms and emperors such as the Buddhist Asoka c. 1400-1800 CE—Moguls

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 6' - Rita


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 6

Chapter 6

Indian and South India

madras
Madras
  • in southern India on the east coast
  • Chennai means “the city” in Tamil.
brief history
Brief History
  • 2500-1700 BCE—Indus Valley cities
  • 3rd century BCE—countless kingdoms and emperors such as the Buddhist Asoka
  • c. 1400-1800 CE—Moguls
  • c. 1600-1947 CE—three centuries of British colonialism
hinduism
Hinduism
  • “the dominant religion of India.”
  • Caste: “one of the hereditary social classes in Hinduism that restrict the occupation of their members and their association with the members of other castes.”
islam
Islam
  • Moslems
  • “belief in Allah as the sole deity and in Muhammad as his prophet.”
  • About 10%
palimpsest
Palimpsest
  • “a manuscript parchment written on again and again in which everything written before is never fully erased. Everything written before is somehow still there, visible and readable . . .
  • ” Similarly in Indian culture old traditions persist and “coexist with the new and innovative . . .
history culture politics
History, Culture, Politics
  • one billion people—a fifth of the world’s population
  • an area one-third the size of the United States
  • “The country hosts fifteen major languages
  • “Its continuous history . . . stretches back five thousand years and beyond . . .”
regions
Regions
  • Hindustani -- North
    • Moslem concentration
    • Hindus Valley
  • Carnatic -- South
    • Hindu concentration
    • Carnatic Plains
english influence
English Influence
  • railways
  • democratic systems of government
  • bureaucracy
  • universities
  • European musical instruments
european musical instruments
“While Indians adapted European musical instruments to their musical styles, they did not adopt European musical styles. “

violin

clarinet

piano

saxophone

Guitar

Mandolin

European musical instruments
traditional literature
Traditional literature
  • two Sanskrit epics between 400 B.C.E. and 400 C.E.”
    • Ramayana
    • Mahabharata
  • In Carnatic music many song texts refer to events in these epics.
important religious works
Important religious works
  • The four Vedas
  • Upanishads
  • Puranas
hindustani and carnatic music
Hindustani and Carnatic Music
  • Similarities
    • ragas
    • talas
  • Differences
    • The Hindusthani north -- expansive improvisations
    • Carnatic south -- pre-composed devotional songs
slide15
Raga
  • “that which colors the mind and the heart
  • a collection of notes, a scale, intonation, ornaments, pillar tones,
  • a precise melody form
  • sa ri ga ma pa da ni (sa)
slide16
Tala
  • regularly recurring metric cycles consisting of groups of beats.
veena
veena
  • plucked string instrument with seven strings
  • three drone strings and four playing strings (for playing melodies).
mridangam
Mridangam
  • double-headed, barrel-shaped drum.
the carnatic texture
The Carnatic texture
  • Melody Layer
    • vocalist(s)/instrumentalist (veena)
  • Drone Layer
    • sustained (continuously sounding) central tone
    • tambura or sruti box
  • Rhythm Layer (percussion)
    • mridangam—multi-timbral, double-headed
    • tala
music of india
Music of India
  • Pop music
  • Devotional song
  • Classical music
cine music
Cine Music
  • Indian popular music
  • A blend of East and West
  • Music is reminiscent of early rock and roll
cd 2 20 our wedding
CD 2:20 “Our Wedding”
  • 0:23 to 0:31—“retro”-sounding guitar solo
  • language of lyrics (Tamil);
    • “a love marriage,” more common in Indian movies than in real Indian life,
    • 0:20, 0:22, 0:50, and 0:52—incongruous “whistle sound”
    • sudden insertion of Woody Woodpecker theme
    • (timbre)—flute, clarinet, “retro” guitar
    • 1:15-1:41 and 2:13-2:35—unique percussion instruments playing heavy rhythmic accompaniments
bhajan
bhajan
  • devotional song
  • sung by a soloist with accompanying instruments
    • or by a vocal group in a call-and–response manner
chinna melan
chinna melan
  • “small band,” an ensemble of two or more
  • A chinna melam is likely to be performed at any auspicious occasion, for example, at temple worship, weddings, the opening a new store, and so on.
chinna melam instruments
Chinna Melam instruments
  • nagasvaram double-reed pipes,
  • tavil drums and
  • sruti-box drone
cd 2 21 o devi with fish shaped eyes
CD 2:21 “O Devi! with Fish-Shaped Eyes”
  • Vocal solo
  • mridangam (Indian drum)
  • electronic drone
o devi
O Devi!
  • 0:00–0:06—Drone (electronically-produced)
  • 0:07—singer enters with raga-based solo
    • glides/slides to and around the important notes of the melody
  • Raga: a precise melody form
o devi29
O Devi!
  • The song text “praises Devi Meenakshi, a beautiful [Hindu] goddess . . . who is worshipped in . . . [a] great temple.” “O Devi! (“Goddess”) with fish-shaped eyes (that is, her eyes are always open) . . . protect me.”
  • 0:35 to end—
    • adi tala (an Indian metric cycle of 4 + 2 + 2 beats
  • Tala: rhythm pattern
karnataka sangeeta
Karnataka Sangeeta
  • Classical Music of South India
    • in English simply Carnatic music.
    • It is named after the Carnatic plateau
transmission
Transmission
  • oral tradition passed down by memory. The music is to nudge the memory.
  • no definitive version of the music exists.
  • musical renditions may become highly variable
extra kriti by tyagaraja
Extra: Kriti by Tyagaraja
  • Banturiti
  • Hamsanadam raga
    • c e f# g b
  • adi tala
    • 4 + 2 + 2
banturiti overview
Drone

srutibox

alapana

pallavi

anupallavi

pallavi

Niraval

vocal

violin

vocal

svarakalpana

returns to text

pallavi

Banturiti - Overview
banturiti
Banturiti
  • 0:00 sruti -box
    • drone
  • 0:05 alapana
    • singer explores raga
    • violin minics
    • SA range
banturiti35
Banturiti
  • 0:43 pallavi
    • listen for “Banturiti”
    • violin is in unison
  • 1:30 empty space
  • 1:34 anupallavi
    • begins on eduppu
  • 2:14 pallavi returns - Banturiti
  • 2:31 caranam begins
banturiti36
Banturiti
  • 3:00 niraval
    • vocal improvisation
    • violin improvisation based on voice
    • vocal improvisation
  • 4:28 svarakalpana
    • vocal improvisation on syllables
  • 5:14 singer returns to words
banturiti37
Banturiti
  • 5:25 pallavi returns
    • listen for Banturiti
cd 3 1 sarasiruha to the goddess saraswati
CD 3:1 “Sarasiruha” (“To the Goddess Saraswati”)
  • Kriti in Natai raga and Adi tala.
  • Performed by veena and mridangam.
sarasiruha
Sarasiruha
  • 0:00-3:15Alapana “free-flowing exposition and exploration of the raga
    • absence of meter
    • drone sustains tonal center and the tone a fifth above tonal center
  • 3:20-8:15 Tanam
    • “strong sense of beat.”
    • improvised melody continues
sarasiruha40
Sarasiruha
  • 8:25-15:45 Kriti “Sarasiruha”
    • “centerpiece” of the performance
      • Pallavi: “O Mother who loves the lotus seat,”
      • Anupallavi: “Save me who have taken refuge in you!”
      • Charanam: “Complete Being, who holds a book in her hand which bestows all dominion.”
sarasiruha41
Sarasiruha
  • 15:45-18:05 Kalpana Svaras
    • mridangam continues to accompany
    • melody played on the veena
  • 18:06-22:20 The Drum Solo: Tani Avartanam
    • A long and complex improvised drum solo played on the mridangam accompanied only by the drone being played on the drone strings of the veena
  • 22:04
ravi shankar
Ravi Shankar
  • virtuoso sitar player
  • 1960s concerts brought him superstar status in Europe, the United States and India.
ad