Andreas S. Weigend
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Content Market size for B2B (Business to Business) B2B(企业对企业)市场规模 Price-setting mechanisms (catalogs, auctions, exchanges) 定价机制(目录、拍卖、交易) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Andreas S. Weigend , PhD 韋思岸 教授. SJTU Dec 2004. Content Market size for B2B (Business to Business) B2B(企业对企业)市场规模 Price-setting mechanisms (catalogs, auctions, exchanges) 定价机制(目录、拍卖、交易) Pricing models for operating the market 定价模式 Reputation management 信誉管理

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Content market size for b2b business to business b2b price setting mechanisms catalogs auctions exchanges

Andreas S. Weigend, PhD韋思岸教授

SJTU Dec 2004

Content

  • Market size for B2B (Business to Business) B2B(企业对企业)市场规模

  • Price-setting mechanisms (catalogs, auctions, exchanges)定价机制(目录、拍卖、交易)

  • Pricing models for operating the market定价模式

  • Reputation management信誉管理

  • Supplier adoption, quality assurance, dispute resolution,…接纳供应商、保证质量

  • Example: eBay例: eBay

E-Business (7): Markets电子商务 (7): 市场和拍卖


B2b commerce and b2b markets b2b b2b

B2B Commerce and B2B MarketsB2B商务及B2B市场

  • B2B commerce: Purchase and sale of goods and services between businessesB2B商务:企业间商品和服务的购销

    • Auto parts汽车部件

    • SDRAM chips SDRAM芯片

    • Telecom bandwidth电信带宽

    • Natural gas

      天然气

    • Office supplies办公用品

  • B2B markets: Internet-based markets for B2B commerce B2B市场:基于互联网的B2B商务市场


B2b markets some history b2b

B2B Markets: Some History B2B市场:一些历史情况

  • Before B2B markets: EDI (electronic data interchange), close bilateral relationships

  • Pre-1998: Conventional Internet-based commerce by some leading computer and networking product companies

    • Cisco, Dell, Sun, …

  • 1998: Independent (VC-backed) markets emerge, to connect buyers and sellers over the Web

    • Chemdex, VerticalNet, MetalSite

  • 1999: Specific buyers and sellers launch their own B2B markets

    • AutoExchange (Ford, buyer), Polymerland (GE, seller)

  • 2000: Participants join forces to announce industry-sponsored marketplaces

    • Role of independents becomes software vendors

  • 2002: 7% penetration

  • 在B2B市场之前:电子数据交换和密切的双边关系

  • 1998年前:一些领先的计算机及联网产品公司的传统互联网商务

    • 思科、戴尔、太阳……

  • 1998年:独立(以风险资本为后盾)市场出现,将买卖双方通过网络进行连接

    • Chemdex, VerticalNet, MetalSite

  • 1999年:特定的买方和卖方推出了自己的B2B市场

    • AutoExchange (福特,买方), Polymerland (通用电气,卖方)

  • 2000年:参与者联合起来宣布推出由行业赞助的市场,独立公司成为软件销售商

    • Role of independents becomes software vendors

  • 2002年: 7%渗透率


B2b 09 01 b2b market projections 09 01

B2B市场预测(09/01) B2B Market Projections (09/01)

(10亿)

$6,000

40%

36%

35%

$5,000

29%

$5,450

30%

$4,000

25%

$4,111

20%

$3,000

20%

15%

12%

$2,688

$2,000

10%

7%

$1,515

4%

$1,000

3%

5%

$793

$466

$343

$0

0%

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Total Penetration总渗透率

Total B2B Goods- Billions

B2B商品总计-10亿

Total B-to-B Commerce B2B商务总额

Percentage of Total Penetration总渗透率


B2b markets b2b

B2B MarketsB2B市场预测

Heavy industries

Aerospace and defense

Shipping and warehousing

Industrial equipment and supplies

Pharmaceutical and medical products

Construction

Food and agriculture

Consumer goods

Paper and office products

Utilities

Petrochemicals

Motor vehicles

Computing and electronics

重工业

$3,000

航天国防

船运仓储

工业设备和供应

医药产品

$2,500

建筑

食品和农业

消费品

纸业和办公产品

$2,000

公用事业

石化

Value of B2B

transactions

online ($B)

网上B2B交易价值(10亿美元)

机动车辆

$1,500

计算机和电子产品

$1,000

$500

0

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Source: Forrester Research, 2000


Percent of total trade in different industries u s

Percent of total trade in different industries (U.S.)占不同行业总贸易额百分比(美国)

计算机及电信设备

航天国防

机动车辆及零部件

金属与采矿

化学品

Source: Jupiter Internet B-to-B Commerce Model, 6/00 (US only)


Perceived importance and actual trade percentage b2b

Perceived Importance and Actual Trade Percentage B2B商务的重要性及实际贸易比例

“How important is online B2B eCommerce”

“Of your total trade, how much

is done using the Internet?”

“网上B2B电子商务有多重要”

“在总贸易额中互联网贸易占多少?”

Sellers

Buyers

卖方

买方

>50%

- 4%

Critical

37%

32%

22%

至关重要

73%

67%

1%-50%

Very

50%

18%

十分

18%

重要

23%

12%

important

Percent of

网上贸易

18%

18%

重要

trade done

Important

12%

百分比

10%

71%

on the Net

27%

32%

不重要

Not

3%

0%

important

46%

None

02/2000

2002 (est.)

2002(估计)

7%

02/2000

2002 (估计)

2002 (est.)

Source: Forrester Research, 2000


Summary of b2b market size

Summary of B2B Market Size总结

  • Penetration 渗透率

    • Worldwide, 5…10% of entire trade volume done online 整个全球贸易中有5-10%是在网上进行

      • In US, 30% in some sectors (computers, defense)在美国,某些行业甚至占到30%(计算机、国防)

    • Characteristics of early adopters 早期接受者的特征

      • Internet infrastructure companies (e.g., CISCO) and/or highly standardized parts (automotive) 互联网基础设施公司(如思科)和/或高度标准化的行业(汽车)

  • B2B is 90… 95% of all EB B2B占整个电子商务的90-95%

  • Next 接下来的主题

    • Pricing of goods (catalogs, auctions, exchanges) 商品的定价(目录、竞拍、交易)

    • Pricing for providing market place 提供市场的定价

    • Supporting services 支持性服务


Type of product traded

Type of product traded交易商品的类型

  • Operating (indirect) inputs经营(间接)投入

    • Used for MRO (maintenance, repair, operations) 用于MRO(维护、修理、运营)

    • Do not serve as direct inputs into a production process 不作为生产过程的直接投入

    • Example: Office supplies例:办公用品

    • Lower $ volume, higher frequency and # of transactions 交易金额少,交易频率高,次数多

  • Commodities商品

    • Electricity, oil, bandwidth, natural gas,…电力、石油、带宽、天然气……

  • Direct inputs直接投入

    • Typically a manufacturing input典型的是生产投入

    • Used directly in the ‘production’ process直接用于“生产”过程

    • Example: auto parts, memory chips例:汽车部件、内存芯片

    • Higher $ volume, lower number of transactions 交易金额高,交易次数少


Purchasing forecasts

Purchasing forecasts购买预测

B2B Market purchases in 2002

B2B Market purchases in 2002

B2B Market purchases in 2002

Source: Forrester Research, 2000


Purchasing forecasts1

Purchasing forecasts

2002年B2B市场购买

eMarketplace purchases in 2002

2000

7%

18

公司数量

13

12

7

64%

2002

0-25%

26%-50%

51%-75%

76%-100%

商品

2002年B2B市场购买

7%

2000

2002

46%

直接材料

2002年B2B市场购买

4%

2000

39%

2002

2000年你有多少采购是通过电子市场进行的?2002年呢?

¡±

间接材料

Based on 50 companies responding 根据作出回答的50家公司

eMarketplace purchases in 2002

15

公司数量

12

8

6

0-25%

26%-50%

51%-75%

76%-100%

Based on 41 companies responding 根据作出回答的41家公司

eMarketplace purchases in 2002

18

公司数量

14

6

2

0-25%

26%-50%

51%-75%

76%-100%

Based on 40 companies responding 根据作出回答的40家公司

Source: Forrester Research, 2000


Focus of market

Focus of Market市场焦点

  • Horizontal markets横向市场

    • Span a variety of industries跨越众多行业

    • Tend to be better suited for operating inputs往往更适合于经营投入

  • Vertical markets纵向市场

    • Specialized in one specific industry专门从事某一个特定行业

    • Likely to be for direct manufacturing inputs可能适合于直接生产投入

    • Possibly integrated into supply-chain of buyers/seller 可能会整合到买方/卖方供应链中

    • Possibly designed to suit the specific needs of the industry 可能是为了适合行业的特定需求

  • Other types of market focus其它类型的市场焦点

    • Product focus: bandwidth, natural gas, electricity 产品焦点:带宽、天然气、电力

    • Regional focus地区焦点


Content market size for b2b business to business b2b price setting mechanisms catalogs auctions exchanges

- Price-setting mechanisms (for goods)定价机制(商品)- Catalogs, auctions, exchanges目录、竞拍、交易- Pricing models for operating the market市场运行的定价模式


Pricing structures

Pricing structures定价结构

  • Distinct from market mechanism不同于市场机制

    • Price of ‘providing the market’ vs. price of product traded “提供市场”的价格与交易商品价格

    • Is ‘providing the market’ an information good? “提供市场”是一种信息商品吗?

  • Transaction-related fees交易相关费用

    • Per transaction, per bundle of transactions, % of savings 每笔交易,每一捆交易,节约百分比

    • Common in commodities markets常见于大众化商品市场

  • Membership fees会员费

    • Fixed periodic fees, unlimited transactions定期固定费用,无限制交易

  • Other models其他模式

    • Advertising广告

    • Fees for related commerce services相关商务服务费用

    • Revenues from information sales信息出售收入


Market mechanisms

Market Mechanisms市场机制

  • The market mechanism determines the rules based on which the price of the goods being traded is set

    市场机制决定了交易商品价格的设定规则

    • Method of determining price确定价格的方法

    • Frequency of price changes价格变化的频率

  • The mechanism is one crucial determinant of market liquidity and efficiency市场机制是确定市场流动性和效率的关键决定因素

  • Some examples of possible B2B mechanisms 一些可能的B2B机制举例

    • Catalogs of fixed prices固定价格目录

    • Auctions of various flavors不同类型的竞拍

    • Exchanges (double auctions, clearing houses)交易(双向竞拍、结算所)

    • Dynamic bid-ask matching动态买价-卖价匹配

    • Dealer markets交易商市场

    • Negotiated prices议价


Mechanism catalog

Mechanism: Catalog机制:目录

  • Prices are pre-determined and listed价格预先确定并标出

  • Different buyers could have different ‘price views’ 不同买方可能有不同“价格观点”

  • Market does not perform a price-creation function市场不执行定价功能

  • Market should provide the following functions:市场应提供以下功能:

    • Aggregating buyers and sellers集合买方和卖方

    • Detailing rich product specification information列举详细的产品规格信息

    • Standardized product specifications产品规格标准化

    • Content management tools for vendors销售商的内容管理工具

  • Well-suited for B2B marketplaces:很适合B2B市场

    • With a wide variety of low-priced products有各种各样的低价产品

    • Where buyers tend to buy small quantities frequently买方常购买少量产品

    • Where the benefits of ‘emergent prices’ outweigh the costs “新产生的价格” 收益超过成本

    • Indirect inputs间接投入


Catalogs example

Catalogs: Example目录:举例


Auction heinz in china uses freemarkets

Auction: Heinz in China uses Freemarkets

  • "Procurement has been a back-room process essentially unchanged since the days when Henry Heinz traveled from farm to farm to contract with growers for their crops. Today, it is an exciting new, global frontier for Heinz that is being transformed on a global basis by modern technology and thinking."-William R. Johnson, Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer of H.J. Heinz Company

  • Reverse auction

    • Open, but anonymous bids, 30 minutes

  • ROI?

    • Cost savings?

    • Better prices / more efficient markets


Auction another example from china

Auction: Another example from China竞拍:中国的一则实例

Example: Mobile telephone numbers 例子:手机号码

Ascending prices 价格递增

Highest surviving bid / “Last man standing” gets the number 最高幸存价/“最后出价者”获得号码

Currently: People flying to the auction to attend in-person 现在:人们亲临拍卖场参加竞拍

Why not make it an e-market? 为何不使之成为一个电子竞拍市场?

Buy the software for the auction or outsource as ASP 购买竞拍软件或作为ASP进行外包

Expect to obtain higher price? 希望获得更高的价格?

Pro and con of e-market 电子市场的优缺点

Pro: larger reach, less overhead优点:范围广,间接费用低

Con: Less social effect of bidding it up, fun is part of it, participants are willing to pay for it 缺点:社会效应低,参与者冲着有趣,并愿意为此花钱


Mechanism one sided auction

Mechanism: One-sided auction机制:一方竞拍

  • Prices are set based on bids of one set of market participants (either buyers or sellers, typically buyers) 价格是根据一组市场参与者(买方或卖方,一般是买方)的竞价确定的

    • Bids: 竞价

      • Ascend vs descend 递增与递减

      • Visible vs sealed 非密封与密封

    • Winner pays: 赢者支付

      • What winner had bid vs the highest losing bid 自己的竞价与最高失拍价

    • If several items:如果有多件拍品:

      • Everybody pays the same price vs each what each had bid 每人支付的价格相同与每人支付自己的竞价

  • Typically used for excess inventory sales, spot needs 一般用于剩余库存销售,发现需求


The winner s curse

The Winner’s Curse胜者的诅咒


The winner s curse1

The Winner’s Curse胜者的诅咒


One sided auctions example

One-sided auctions: Example 一方竞拍:举例


One sided auctions example1

One-sided auctions: Example 一方竞拍:举例


Choice of auction

Choice of Auction市场机制的选择

  • Some details 一些细节内容

    • English auctions tend to generate the highest prices for sellers (for a variety of reasons)英式竞拍会给卖方产生一个最高价(出于多种原因)

    • Dutch (descending price) auctions seem to work well for perishable non-commodity products like airline seats, hotel rooms荷兰式(价格递减)竞拍似乎适合非大众化的时效产品如航班座位、酒店客房

    • When buyers are averse to risk, first-price sealed bid auctions lead to higher prices than second-price当买方倾向于规避风险时,第一价格密封式竞拍要比第二价格法产生的价格更高

    • When the estimated valuation distributions of one’s buyers have:当买方估价分布预计是:

      • Same shape, different range: use sealed-bid同一模式,不同幅度:采用密封式竞价

      • Same range, different shape: use ascending同一幅度,不同模式:采用递增式竞价


Mechanism exchange

Mechanism: Exchange机制:交易

Two-sided (double) auctions双方(双向)竞拍

  • Buyers and sellers submit bids买方和卖方递交拍价

    • Limit prices, quantities限制价格、数量

  • Market-maker periodically chooses price that ‘clears the market’ (at which demand = supply) 造市者定期选择使市场平衡(需求=供给)的价格

  • Benefits:好处:

    • Price ‘emerges’ from the market, reflecting supply and demand at that point 价格“产生”于市场,反映了那一时刻的供需关系

      •  “Price discovery” “价格发现”

    • Prices are more visible价格更透明

  • Issues:问题:

    • Requires high volumes to be effective需要数量大才有效

      •  Liquidity 流动性

    • Requires highly standardized products being traded 需要高度标准化的交易产品


Exchanges example

Exchanges: Example交易:举例


Arbinet the x change www arbinet com

Arbinet-thexchange: www.arbinet.com

  • Deep vertical marketplace

  • Created and operates the spot market for voice minutes

  • Compiles and distributes market data

  • Develops the routing intelligence

  • Used by telcos to buy, sell and manage wholesale voice traffic


Other mechanisms used

Other mechanisms used其他机制

  • Reverse auctions逆向竞拍

    • Sellers bid for buyers卖方向买方出价

  • Matching systems匹配系统

    • ‘Exchange-like’ two-sided bids“类似交易”的双方竞价

    • Buyers and sellers directly matched based on complex preference profiles买方和卖方根据复杂的偏好情况直接匹配

    • Niche technology vendors: OptiMark缝隙技术销售商:OptiMark

      • Richer language for orders in finance


Benefits of b2b markets b2b

Benefits of B2B Markets B2B市场的益处

  • Operational efficiencies经营效率

    • Lower ordering costs (reduced by an order of magnitude) 降低订购成本(大订单可降低成本)

    • Shorter order cycles, flexibility of more frequent orders缩短订单周期,频繁订购更灵活

    • Standardized product specifications产品规格标准化

    • Tighter supply-chain integration供应链整合更紧密

  • Price efficiencies价格效率

    • Larger set of trading partners更多的交易伙伴

    • More efficient methods of setting prices更高效的定价方法


Benefits of b2b markets b2b1

Benefits of B2B Markets B2B市场的益处

  • Expanded markets市场扩展

    • Ability to sell surplus product inventory能够销售剩余产品库存

    • Ability to create markets for surplus ‘capacity’能够创造剩余“生产能力” 市场

  • Lower search costs降低搜索成本

    • Easier to identify trading partners更容易找到交易伙伴

    • Access to smaller trading partners接触到规模较小的交易伙伴

    • Easier to comparison shop更容易进行比较购物

  • Increased transparency 透明度提高


Supplier adoption incentives

Supplier Adoption Incentives 供应商接纳激励

B2B markets have many potential benefits tosuppliers 对供应商来说,B2B市场有许多潜在利益

  • Operational运营

    • Improved supply-chain management改善供应链管理

    • Superior production planning and scheduling 卓越的生产规划和时间安排

    • Lower inventory, faster inventory turns降低库存,加快库存周转

  • Financial财务

    • Faster payment processing加快付款处理

    • Superior cash flows卓越的现金流

  • Other其他

    • Access to broader base of buyers接触更广泛的买家

    • Contract standardization合同标准化

    • Superior marketing information卓越的市场营销信息


Supplier adoption incentives1

Supplier Adoption Incentives 供应商接纳激励

However, there are possible deterrents to suppliers然而,有些因素可能会阻碍供应商

  • Fear of product commoditization害怕产品商品化

  • Listing fees, investments into content management 收录费用、内容管理投资

  • Marketplaces should offer incentives to join depending on: 市场应该提供加入激励措施,这取决于:

    • Estimated level of natural benefits to supplier 供应商所能获得的自然利益水平

    • Strategic importance of supplier供应商的战略重要性

      • Dominant/preferred supplier of commodity inputs 商品投入的主导供应商/受青睐供应商

      • Supplier of operationally critical direct inputs 对经营至关重要的直接投入的供应商


  • Supplier adoption incentives2

    Supplier Adoption Incentives 供应商接纳激励

    • Fears of commoditization could pan out in at least two ways (both possibly favoring adoption by supplier): 对商品化的担心至少可以从两方面加以抚平(这两方面都是倾向于被供应商接纳)

      • If there are indeed well-regarded smaller substitute suppliers, a larger supplier may lose business by staying out of a market 如果确实有受好评的替代品小型供应商,大型供应商若远离市场则会失去业务

      • If, on the other hand, the supplier’s product has few competitive threats, joining does not commoditize the product 如果从另一方面来说,供应商产品面临的竞争威胁很小,加入不会使产品商品化


    Choice of market mechanism

    Choice of Market Mechanism市场机制的选择

    Selected guidelines for choosing market mechanisms 市场机制选择的部分指导原则

    • Catalogs: High product complexity, frequent trade, low variability in supply and demand 目录:产品高度复杂、频繁交易、供需变动小

    • ‘True markets’: Uniform, divisible, well-understood, high-volume, frequently traded, perishable “真正的市场”:统一、可分、理解充分、大批量、经常交易、时效

      • Possible products: oil, gas, electricity, bandwidth, memory, steel,… 可能产品:石油、煤气、电力、带宽、内存、钢铁等……

    • Auctions: If a ‘true market’ isn’t feasible, high supply or demand variability, infrequent trade, large volume per order竞拍:如果“真正的市场”行不通,供应或需求变动大,交易不频繁,每笔订单数量大


    Reputation management

    Reputation management信誉管理


    Quality assurance trading partner

    Quality Assurance: Trading Partner质保:贸易伙伴

    • When a business trades with more partners:当企业与多方交易时:

      • Better prices, availability, and so on…更优的价格、货源充足、等等……

      • …but lower learning about ‘reputation for reliability’ from repeated transactions …但缺乏对反复交易所能产生的“可靠信誉”的了解

    • Necessitates (standardized) method for sharing partner-quality information必须有分享贸易伙伴质量信息的(标准化)方法

      • From the buyer’s point of view:从买方的角度来看:

        • Does this supplier represent quality accurately, deliver on time, ship the right products… 供应商是否拥有很高的质量,按时交货,正确发货……

      • From the seller’s point of view:从卖方的角度来看:

        • Does this buyer have the money, will payment be on time…买方是否有资金,付款是否准时……

    • Q: Should these ‘reputation services’ be marketplace specific or shared across multiple marketplaces?这些“信誉服务”应针对某个特定市场还是在多个市场共享?


    Reputation systems

    Reputation systems信誉系统

    • Problem: What merchant can a buyer trust? 问题:消费者可以信任哪些商家?

      • Comparison shopping suffers from a similar problem as search: There are many possible vendors returned, who to buy from? 比较购物出现类似搜索的问题:显示出许多可能的销售商,但到底向谁购买?

      • Since shopbots reduce search costs, this problem surfaces quickly 既然购物虫降低了搜索成本,那么这个问题很快就会显露出来

    • Solution: Reputation systems, based on community feedback解决方法:信誉系统这些系统基于社区反馈信息

      • Explicit 显性

        • Reviews, ratings 评论,评分

      • Implicit (through actions) 隐性(通过行动)

    Problem of fraud: Need to build statistical models to filter out irregularities.欺骗问题:需要建立统计模型,排除非常规因素。


    Reputation systems leverage community

    Reputation systems leverage community信誉系统得依靠社区

    • Reputation systems address the question whether I can trust:信誉系统解决了这样一个问题:我能否信任

      • The product?产品?

      • The buyer?买家?

      • The seller? 卖家?

    • Who provides the reputation system? 谁提供信誉系统?

      • The comparison site or the marketplace itself?比较网站还是市场本身?

      • Specialized firms from the outside? 外部专业公司?


    Quality assurance trading partner1

    Quality Assurance: Trading Partner质保:贸易伙伴

    Some desirable qualities of a reputation service 信誉服务的理想特征

    • Simplicity: Understanding ratings does not require deep analysis简单:了解等级不需要深入的分析

    • Appropriate basis for rating: Provides information that is pertinent to the buyer/seller’s needs (delivery, payment timeliness, product quality, support,…) 合适的评级基础:提供与买方/卖方需求密切相关的信息(交货、付款及时性、产品质量、支持……)

    • Span of coverage: Covers as many potential trading partners as possible覆盖范围:包括尽可能多的潜在贸易伙伴

    • Predictive: Is able to generalize across partners (thereby increasing the depth of information beyond merely the transaction histories of the participants) 预测性:能够对各贸易伙伴得出总体概括(因此增加了信息深度,而不仅限于参与者的历史交易情况)


    Quality assurance trading partner2

    Quality Assurance: Trading Partner质保:贸易伙伴

    Example:举例:

    • Rating services for B2B marketplaces B2B市场评级服务

      • Subscription service for buyers, rather than being marketplace-specific买方订购服务,而不是针对特定市场

      • Focus is on supplier ratings重点是在供应商评级

      • Can enable companies to identify areas for supply chain improvement

    • Selected products:所选产品:

      • Supplier Performance Review供应商业绩评估

      • Buyer Insight买方的认识

    • Partners: Dun & Bradstreet, Deloitte & Touche 合作伙伴:邓白氏、德勤


    Quality assurance trading partner3

    Quality Assurance: Trading Partner质保:贸易伙伴

    Example:举例:

    1.公司概况(摘自邓白氏报告)

    名称:

    创立时间:

    曾用名:

    (无)

    目前控制年度:

    地址:

    不详

    年销售额:

    电话:

    共25人

    员工总数:

    编号:

    8742/管理咨询服务

    SIC/业务范围:

    2.供应商业绩评级

    “公开评级”用一种复杂的算法来计算供应商业绩水平,其中考虑了关于供应商信息的数量、信息的即时性、评级机构的准确性。评级范围从0-100,而不是百分位数值

    SIC五分位等级

    业绩评级

    最低

    最高

    表示可能的总体业绩

    8742/管理咨询的服务


    Quality assurance trading partner4

    Quality Assurance: Trading Partner质保:贸易伙伴

    Example:举例:

    详细的业绩评级

    可靠性: 你认为公司兑现其诺言的可靠性为多大?

    成本: 你的最终成本与你在交易时的预期是否相符?

    订单准确性: 你认为提供的产品/服务与你的订单规格和数量是否匹配?

    交货及时性: 你对产品/服务交付的及时性是否满意?

    质量: 你对该公司提供的产品/服务的质量是否满意?

    商业关系: 你认为公司是否容易打交道?

    员工: 你对公司员工的态度、礼仪和职业精神是否满意

    客户支持:


    Quality assurance trading partner5

    Quality Assurance: Trading Partner质保:贸易伙伴

    4.反馈分布

    Example:例子:

    供应商评级部分是基于对以往客户的调查反馈。下图对这些评级人收到的调查答案作了细分。对每一个调查问题,答案都分为0-10级,其中“正面”反馈为9-10,“中性”反馈为5-8,“负面”反馈为0-4。每一类别的答案百分比如下所示。

    总体业绩

    可靠性

    成本

    订单准确性

    交货及时性

    质量

    商业关系

    员工

    客户支持

    反应性

    正面反馈

    中性反馈

    负面反馈


    Quality assurance product inspection

    Quality Assurance: Product Inspection质保:产品检验

    Services to ensure the quality of products ordered (based on inspection rather than transaction history)这一服务是确保所订购产品的质量(根据检验结果而不是交易历史)

    • Examples of services服务举例

      • Order inspection: quantity, workmanship, function, appearance, color, size specifications. 订单检验:数量、工艺、功能、外观、颜色、尺寸规格

      • Product performance testing产品性能测试

      • Product safety testing产品安全性测试

      • Factory/site inspection and approval, EH&S compliance, random sampling of products,…工厂/现场检验和审核,环保、健康和安全情况,产品随机抽样,……

    • Examples of vendors销售商举例:

      • Bureau Veritas

      • Intertek Testing Services Intertek测试服务

      • SGS OnSite


    Effects on market in china

    Effects on market in China

    • Higher number of attributes (in addition to price, e.g., quality, timeliness)  better matches between buyers and suppliers

    • Increased transparency allows us to get those attributes we care for

    • This lecture focused on external processes

      • Need standards


    Other supporting services market ownership

    Other supporting services支持性服务Market ownership市场所有权


    Other supporting services

    Other supporting services支持性服务

    • Trade processes which were relationship-specific have to be provided and supported (independently or by marketplace)必须提供和支持(独立或通过市场)特定关系的交易流程

  • Quality Assurance质保

    • Product: Inspection, quality guarantees, counter-party insurance产品:检验、质量保证书、对立方保险

    • Partner: Credit rating, credit checking

      合作伙伴:信用评级、信用审核

  • Payment and settlement支付和结算

    • Loans, letters of credit, open credit lines, transaction settlement, escrow, payment transfers,…贷款、信用证、无担保信用额度、交易结算、代管契约、支付转帐……

  • Logistics物流

    • Delivery guarantees, packing and shipping, shipping integration送货保障、包装和运送、运送整合

  • After-sale售后服务

    • Returns processing, dispute resolution 退货处理,争端解决


  • Financing payment and settlement

    Financing, Payment and Settlement融资、支付和结算

    • Financing for transactions交易融资

      • Loans, letters of credit, open credit lines 贷款、信用证、无担保信用额度

    • Reduction in payment risk支付风险降低

      • Credit checks, insurance against non-payment, escrow

      • 信用审核、拒付保险、第三方代管

    • Transaction settlement 交易结算

    • Example:举例:

      • Joint venture between AIG and D&B AIG和D&B合资

      • Provides a suite of services, including credit checks, trade credit insurance, payment and settlement, product/cargo inspection…提供一套服务,包括信用审核、交易信用保险、支付和结算、产品/货物检验……

      • Other examples: TradeSafe, Actrade, eCredit.com, Escrow.com (Fidelity), SierraCities, TradeCard其他例子: TradeSafe, Actrade, eCredit.com, Escrow.com (Fidelity), SierraCities, TradeCard


    Dispute resolution

    Dispute Resolution解决争端

    • In a B2B marketplace 在B2B市场

      • Trade disputes are more likely when one trades with a larger number of less frequent trading partners 当一方与许多不常往来的贸易伙伴交易时容易发生贸易争端

      • Trade disputes may be more complex to resolve (due to lowering of natural geographic trading constraints) 贸易争端可能会更复杂而难以解决(因为自然地理贸易限制减少)

      • A well-defined dispute resolution infrastructure is crucial for the efficient functioning of the market 明确界定的争端解决架构是市场高效运作的关键

    • Current options 当前办法

      • AAA: eCommerce Dispute Resolution Protocol

        AAA:电子商务争端解决协议

      • ICC: International Court of Arbitration ICC: 国际仲裁法庭

      • SquareTrade


    B2b market ownership b2b

    B2B Market Ownership B2B市场所有权

    • Typical ownership structures:典型的所有权结构:

      • Owned/sponsored by an industry consortium 由行业联合会所有/赞助

      • Owned by a neutral third-party 由中立的第三方所有

      • Owned by a single buyer or seller 由单独的买方或卖方所有

      • Other structures? 其它结构?

    • Ownership issues:所有权问题:

      • Is the owner affected by the price in the market? 所有者是否受市场价格影响?

      • Does the market requires liquidity to succeed? 市场成功是否需要流动性?

      • Do the participants need to adopt and deeply integrate with the market in order to benefit from it? 参与者是否需要接受市场并深深地融入市场才能从中获益?

      • Does the market owner exclusively owns the transaction and order flow information?市场所有者是否独自享有交易和订单流程信息?


    Ownership independent

    Ownership: Independent 所有权:独立

    • Venture-backed third parties who does not transact in the market不在市场上交易、以风险资本为后盾的第三方

      • Focus: Vertical/Horizontal焦点:纵向/横向

      • Product: Varied initially, evolving to indirect inputs or commodities产品:开始各式各样,逐渐发展为间接投入或商品

      • Mechanisms: Multiple 机制:多重

    • Represented first wave of B2B markets 代表B2B市场的第一浪潮

    • Advantages:优势:

      • Natural incentive to choose most efficient mechanism 选择最高效机制的自然动力

      • No ‘vested interests’ 无“既得利益”

      • Web/technology savvy (sometimes leading to new market technologies)网络/技术精通者(有时导致新的市场技术)

    • Examples?举例?


    Ownership industry sponsored

    Ownership: Industry-Sponsored 所有权:行业赞助

    • Multiple industry participants collaborate to set up their own B2B market 行业中的多个参与者相互合作,共同建立自己的B2B市场

      • Focus: Vertical 焦点:纵向

      • Product: Direct inputs (typically) 产品:直接投入(一般情况)

      • Mechanisms: Multiple (mostly catalog and auction, sometimes exchange) 机制:多重(大多是目录和竞拍,有时是交易)

    • Advantages:优势:

      • ‘Born with critical mass/liquidity’“开始就达到了临界规模/流动性”

      • Industry-specific knowledge行业特定知识

      • Deeper supply-chain integration with participants 与参与方更深入的供应链整合

      • Deeper pockets 更雄厚的资金实力

    • Examples?举例?


    B2b market information b2b

    B2B Market Information B2B市场信息

    • The move from isolated buyer-seller relationships to a common B2B marketplace results in:从孤立的买方-卖方关系转到共同的B2B市场会带来:

      • Availability of composite transaction information综合交易信息的提供

      • Better supply and demand information更好的供需信息

        • Directly through order flow, willingness to pay 直接通过订单流程,支付意愿度

        • Indirectly through price signals 间接通过价格信号

    • Some issues and implications一些问题和启示:

      • Valuable increase in efficiency through aggregate statistics 通过汇总数据提高效率

      • Superior supply planning via aggregated downstream demand information通过汇总下游需求信息进行卓越的供给规划

      • Higher transparency of competitor information 竞争对手的信息透明度提高

      • Possible unfair inequity in information access信息获取上可能存在不公平现象

      • Possibility of misuse of by powerful market participants 强大的市场参与者可能滥用权力


    B2b market consolidationb2b

    B2B Market ConsolidationB2B市场合并

    Online B2B

    volume ($B)

    Expect 100-200 marketplaces (mostly vertically focused) by 2003?


    Content market size for b2b business to business b2b price setting mechanisms catalogs auctions exchanges

    B2B市场合并

    Expect 100-200 marketplaces (mostly vertically focused) by 2003?

    预计到2003年有100-200个市场(大多是以纵向市场为主)?

    $1,200

    美国电子市场交易(10亿)

    900

    eMarketplace

    trade in the US

    600

    (billions)

    Online B2B

    volume ($B)

    网上B2B交易额

    300

    肃清

    巩固

    调节

    0

    2001

    2002

    2003

    ?

    ?

    ?

    电子市场达到临界

    有限交易量

    买方和卖方

    数量

    变得更苛刻

    ?

    资本市场撤退

    弱小者合并

    ?

    网络公司与财团结盟

    ?

    ?

    财团冻结公司决策

    许多网络公司关闭

    商店

    买方锁定

    ?

    无所不包的风险公司

    ?

    ?

    缩小规模


    B2b market consolidation b2b

    B2B Market Consolidation B2B市场合并

    • Why is consolidation likely?合并为何可能?

      • B2B markets display strong network effects B2B市场展现了强大的网络效应

        • More buyers -> more value to each seller, and vice versa 更多的买方 -> 为每家卖方带来更多的价值,反之亦然

        • Scale implies more efficient pricing of products traded 规模意味着交易产品的定价更高效

        • Benefits from pooling of demand/supply information 汇集供需信息所产生的好处

      • B2B markets could have high switching costs B2B市场的转换成本很高

        • High upfront costs: integration investment by participants 较高的前期成本:参与者的整合投资

        • Brand-specific training in process/mechanisms 在流程/机制方面的特定品牌培训

        • Information and databases: product/participant content, reputation and transaction histories信息和数据库:产品/参与者内容、信誉和交易历史

    • Deterrents to consolidation?合并阻碍因素?

    • Consolidation of B2B markets raises antitrust concerns on at least two fronts B2B市场合并引起了至少两个方面的反托拉斯问题

      • Collusion via information sharing agreements通过信息共享协议相互勾结

      • Lowered competitiveness from exclusion由于排他性而降低了竞争程度


    B2b markets antitrust issues b2b

    B2B Markets: Antitrust Issues B2B市场:反托拉斯问题

    Collusion via information sharing agreements通过信息共享协议相互勾结

    • Higher prices (signaling, output collusion)抬高价格(发信号、产量串谋)

    • Inefficient standardization of transaction terms 交易条件未达标准

      Industry/agreement aspects that increase concerns: 引起越来越多关注的行业/协议方面

    • High concentration/entry barriers高集中度/高进入壁垒

    • Information transparency between competitors (rather than buyers and sellers)竞争者(而不是买方和卖方)之间的信息透明度

    • Nature of information shared共享信息的性质

      • Price and output vs. other价格和产量与其他

      • Direct vs. indirect goods, strategic significance 直接和间接商品,战略重要性

      • Age (past/present/future) and granularity年龄(过去/现在/未来)和细分

    • Current alternate sources of this information目前这一信息的其他来源


    B2b markets antitrust issues b2b1

    B2B Markets: Antitrust Issues B2B市场:反托拉斯问题

    Selective exclusion of buyers and/or suppliers选择性地排除买方和/或供应商

    • Industry-wide consortia may wield enough power to favor certain participants over others行业联合会可能会偏袒某些参与者

    • Range of possibilities: selective rebates, selective access to partners, higher fees, outright exclusion可能性范围:选择性回扣、选择性接触贸易伙伴、费用更高、安全排他性

      But exclusion is not necessarily anti-competitive但排他性不一定是反竞争的

    • Harm to competitors vs. harm to competition对竞争者的损害与对竞争的损害

    • Examples: AP vs. the US, Alaskan Airlines vs. UAL 举例:亚太与美国、阿拉斯加航空公司与美联航

    • Questions that clarify anti-competitive concerns有助于阐明反竞争问题的问题

      • Are there substitute channels or alternative markets to the B2B in question是否有B2B替代渠道或替代市场

      • Does the exclusion in fact raise the prices for the incumbent participants in the B2B排他性是否实际上为B2B市场现有参与者抬高了价格

      • Are there efficiency benefits from exclusion (e.g. avoiding free-riding and increasing incentives for investment)从排他性中是否能获得效率利益(比如避免免费搭车和增加投资动力)


    Content market size for b2b business to business b2b price setting mechanisms catalogs auctions exchanges

    eBay


    Online auctions oct 2002 forrester

    Online auctions: Oct 2002 Forrester

    • By 2002, 21% of online North American households had made an online auction purchase

    • eBay

      • 42 million registered users

      • Sells a pair of shoes every 20 seconds

    • Retailers move merchandise to marketplaces

      • Home Depot, Sears, IBM, Motorola use eBay to liquidate

    • Keys to auction success

      • Retailers use eBay to recover some costs for non-sold merchandise

      • Portals will lose these marketing dollars and need to rethink their strategies

      • Vendors keep innovating

        • Channel Advisor: Control and block deadbeat bidders at start

        • NCR Teradata: Provide analytics to identify patterns of offenders


    Content market size for b2b business to business b2b price setting mechanisms catalogs auctions exchanges

    Online auctions expected to grow to US$55 billion by 2007


    Ebay vs alibaba globalsources ebay

    eBay vs Alibaba, GlobalSourceseBay与阿里巴巴和环球资源

    • Transactions 交易

      • Vs catalogue 与目录

    • Price discovery  increases market efficiency 价格发现使市场更有效

      • Vs fixed prices 与固定价格

      • Price discovery 价格发现

        • Multiple kinds of auctions 多种竞拍方式

      • Payment of eBay eBay的支付形式

        • Insertion price (percentage of price) 插入价格(价格百分比)

    • Network externalities 网络外延性

      Liquidity 流动性

    • Switching cost 转换成本

      • Reputation / History 信誉/历史

        • Both buyers and sellers! 买卖双方!

      • Cognitive Lock-In 认知锁定

      • Registration 注册

    • Initially C2C, and also B2C and B2B 最初是C2C、B2C和B2B


    Discussion

    Discussion讨论

    Overview概述

    • Neutral marketplace for consumer-to-consumer trade消费者对消费者交易的中性市场

    • Founded 1995 as a market for Pez dispensers 成立于1995年,作为PEZ售货机市场

    • By the end of 2000:到2000年底:

      • 22 million users, $27B sales volume 2200万用户,270亿美元销售额

      • $430M revenues, $300M gross profits, $48M net profit 4.3亿美元收入、3亿美元毛利、4800万美元净利润

    用户基础

    销售额 (百万美元)


    Discussion1

    Discussion讨论

    Multiple market mechanisms 多重市场机制

    • English auctions (with reserve prices, minimum bid)英式竞拍(底价、最低竞价)

    • Fixed prices (Half.com, Buy It Now,…) 固定价格 (Half.com, Buy It Now,…)

    • Multiple-item ‘Dutch’ auctions (single-bid, all winners pay lowest winning bid)多个物品“荷兰式”竞拍(单一竞价,所有赢标者支付最低赢标价格)

      Pricing structure定价结构

    • Insertion fee based on minimum bid or reserve price 基于最低竞价或底价的插入价格

      • $0.01 - $9.99 $0.30

      • $10.00 - $24.99 $0.55

      • $25.00 - $49.99 $1.10

      • $50.00 - 199.99 $2.20

      • $200.00 and up $3.30

    • Additional fees for featured listings, placement etc.专题目录、位置等其他费用


    Discussion2

    Discussion讨论

    Supporting services支持性服务

    • Automatic fraud insurance (up to $200)自动欺诈险 (最高$200)

    • Payment systems支付系统

    • Escrow第三方代管

    • Dispute resolution 解决争端

    • Authentication 身份验证


    Discussion3

    Discussion讨论

    Quality Assurance: Trading Partner质保:贸易伙伴

    • eBay’s Feedback Forum records transaction histories of all its buyers and sellers eBay的“反馈论坛”记录了所有买方和卖方的交易历史

    • +1, 0,-1 along with free-text comments +1, 0,-1,同时带有自定义文本评论

    最近7天

    最近1个月

    最近6个月

    最近评论总结

    正面

    中性

    负面

    总计

    总计

    竞标撤回


    Discussion4

    Discussion讨论

    Quality Assurance: Trading Partner

    质保:贸易伙伴

    How much accountability should a market like eBay take for象eBay这样的市场应该承担多大责任?

    • Product quality/authenticity?产品质量/真实性?

    • Trading partner reliability?贸易伙伴可靠性?


    Appendix

    Appendix

    Web services

    Cost drivers


    Web services

    Web Services

    • Web Services

      - available over Internet

      - uses standardized XML messaging

      - not tied to any one operating system or language

    • Key idea: Application-centric Web

    • XML := eXtensible Markup Language

    • SOAP := Simple Object Access Protocol

    • UDDI := Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration


    B2b markets cost drivers

    B2B Markets: Cost Drivers

    Indirect costs

    Price volatility

    Quality uncertainty


    Content market size for b2b business to business b2b price setting mechanisms catalogs auctions exchanges

    B2B市场:成本动因

    准备

    实施

    运作

    1

    2

    3

    将企业与电子市场连接

    管理长期的电子市场应用

    准备好电子市场的应用流程

    通过电子市场购买所需的活动

    电子市场评估

    软件集成

    维护/管理

    电子市场潜力分析

    中间件实施

    持续项目管理

    产品分析

    采购应用程序安装

    内部系统维护

    差距分析

    技术评估

    安全性分析

    基础设施安装

    使用费

    网络基础设施

    交易费

    计算基础设施

    内部流程变化

    订购费

    工作流程记录

    与电子市场整合

    维护费

    间接成本

    创建构架

    界面设计

    价格波动性

    质量不确定性

    内部集成编码

    界面编码

    培训

    内部管理培训

    内部培训课程

    供应商培训


    B2b markets cost drivers b2b

    B2B Markets: Cost Drivers B2B市场:成本动因

    • Three categories of buyers:三种类型的买方

      • Baseline buyers: Recurring indirect purchases 基准线买方:反复间接购买

      • Spot-market dabblers: + spot direct purchases 现货市场涉猎者:+现场直接购买

      • Enterprise enablers: + recurring direct purchases 企业促成者:+反复直接购买

    • Baseline buyers基准线买方

    劳动力

    准备

    成本类别

    6%

    4%

    活动阶段

    实施

    27%

    软件

    22%

    硬件

    费用

    1%

    65%

    运作

    咨询

    69%

    6%

    Source: Forrester Research, 2001


    B2b markets cost drivers b2b1

    B2B Markets: Cost Drivers B2B市场:成本动因

    • Three categories of buyers:三种类型的买方

      • Baseline buyers: Recurring indirect purchases 基准线买方:反复间接购买

      • Spot-market dabblers: + spot direct purchases 现货市场涉猎者:+现场直接购买

      • Enterprise enablers: + recurring direct purchases 企业促成者:+反复直接购买

    • Spot-market dabblers现货市场涉猎者

    劳动力

    准备

    9%

    12%

    成本类型

    活动阶段

    设施

    29%

    软件

    23%

    费用

    54%

    硬件

    运作

    1%

    59%

    咨询

    13%

    Source: Forrester Research, 2001


    B2b markets cost drivers b2b2

    B2B Markets: Cost Drivers B2B市场:成本动因

    • Three categories of buyers:三种类型的买方

      • Baseline buyers: Recurring indirect purchases 基准线买方:反复间接购买

      • Spot-market dabblers: + spot direct purchases 现货市场涉猎者:+现场直接购买

      • Enterprise enablers: + recurring direct purchases 企业促成者:+反复直接购买

    • Enterprise enablers企业促成者

    劳动力

    活动阶段

    成本类型

    15%

    费用

    准备

    运作

    39%

    33%

    46%

    软件

    16%

    硬件

    1%

    实施

    咨询

    21%

    29%

    Source: Forrester Research, 2001


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