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Absolutism and the State Supreme






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Absolutism and the State Supreme. “I would rather obey a fine lion, much stronger than myself, than two hundred rats of my own species.” - Voltaire . I. It’s good to be the king ...sometimes. The strange childhood of Louis XIV b. 1638 r. 1643-1715
Absolutism and the State Supreme

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Slide 1

Absolutism and the State Supreme

“I would rather obey a fine lion, much stronger than myself, than two hundred rats of my own species.”- Voltaire

Slide 2

I. It’s good to be the king ...sometimes

The strange childhood of Louis XIVb. 1638 r. 1643-1715

Era of RegentsCardinal RichelieuAnne of AustriaMazarin “foreigners”

Slide 3

Put away these childish things…

The Fronde, 1649-52

Monarchy v. the Parlements Paris

Nobles Peasants

The lesson…?

Slide 4

L’etat, C’est moi!

Slide 5

II. Forging the Modern State

Slide 6

“Life is nasty, brutish and short”

Thomas Hobbes

- Leviathan, 1660

Absolutism“It is not wisdom but Authority that makes a law”

Slide 7

Perils of Progress

Wars of religion & colonization

Price Revolution

Enclosure

Slide 8

III. Absolutism? Absolutely!

A well conducted government must have an underlying concept so well integrated that it could be likened to a system of philosophy…All financial, political and military matters must flow towards one goal…the strengthening of the state and the furthering of its power.

- Frederick II “The Great” d. 1786

Slide 9

Enlightened despotism

King James(VI & I)

True Law of Free Monarchies – 1598

- material/spiritual well-being- sacred obedience- sovereignty lies in the monarch

Joseph II of Austria1780-1790

Philosophes

Slide 10

“Servant of the state”

Philosophes

Frederick the Great Joseph II

Slide 11

A. The Renaissance1350-1650

Machiavelli The Prince 1513

How things are v. how they ought to be

Slide 12

B. The Reformation

  • Religion and nationalism- Fragmentation v. universalism

    - Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation 1521

Slide 13

C. Decline in Church Primacy

1. State Sovereignty- Henry VIII, Act of Supremacy 1535- Charles V, Peace of Augsburg 1555- Peace of Westphalia 1648

Slide 14

D. Decline of medieval “empires”

1. Ottoman Empire

Suleiman the Magnificentr. 1520-1566

Battle of Lepanto 1571

Slide 15

2. Poland “elective monarchy”

- frontier-less- anti-Semitism

Slide 16

3. Spain

Philip II r. 1550-1598

Revolt of the Netherlands

The Spanish Armada (1588)

Slide 17

IV. Reason of state

Slide 18

A. France

  • Henry IVd. 1610

    Edict of Nantes 1598monopolies

    2. Cardinal Richelieud. 1642 (Louis XIII)intendantsHabsburg warsFrance before individuals, classes, or ChurchMazarin

Slide 19

The Sun King Louis XIV

3. “I am the state”dismissed assembliesdirect rule / appointmentsprofessional armyGallicanism Edict of Fontainebleau 1685 Jansenism

Slide 20

4. King’s Men

bourgeois bureacracyJean-Baptiste Colbertmercantilism

Slide 21

5. “I have loved war too much”

Natural borders

AlliancesHabsburgsWar of the League of AugsburgWar of Spanish Succession

Slide 22

B. Cult of personality

Versailles

Slide 23

Catherine Palace

Sanssouci

Slide 24

When divas ruled Baroque / Rococo style

Slide 25

R & D

  • Science and the state- Académie des Sciences 1666 - Royal Academy 1660

    Christopher Wren. d. 1723

Slide 26

The Grand Embassy

1697-98

Peter Mikhailov

Slide 27

C. Czar of all the Russias

1. Peter I “The Great” 1689-1725- Westernization - Baltic expansion St. Petersburg- state service of nobles- serfs as slaves

Romanovs Eastern Expansion

Slide 28

2. Catherine “the Great”r. 1762-1796- un-Enlightenment 1773 revolt- southern, western expansion

Slide 29

D. Germany stirs

  • HRE?

  • Reformation

  • Westphalia 1648

  • Siege of Vienna 1683

    Leopold I r. 1657-1705Habsburg Dynasty

Slide 30

Austrian Habsburg Dynasty

Maria Teresa 1740-1780Joseph II 1780-1790- religious toleration- abolished torture- equality before the law- abolished serfdom

Slide 31

2. Hohenzollerns(Prussia)- militarism / state serviceFrederick William I

Slide 32

So….

Absolute rulers helped early modern states negotiate fundamental social and economic change…

…but Absolutism itself would become the target of reformers.


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