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H. Kazerooni Human Engineering Laboratory (HEL) University of California at BerkeleyPowerPoint Presentation

H. Kazerooni Human Engineering Laboratory (HEL) University of California at Berkeley

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ONR Site VisitAugust 9, 2000

H. Kazerooni

Human Engineering Laboratory (HEL)

University of California at Berkeley

Topics1. Ground Reaction Force Control2. Frequency Matching Control

Power Terrain

- One motor powers all legs

4

3

2

1

1

2

4

3

4

3

Flexible Feet Construction- Shape Deposition Modeling (SDM)
- Simple Spring Legs
Control system is embedded in hardware

(Elasticity, Damping, and Mass of Legs)

Frequency Matching

- Inverse Pendulum Model
- Frequency of Walking (pendulum) α
Natural Frequency of Leg (spring)

- In fact, for cockroach,
Freq. of Walking ≈ fnof 3 legs / 3 ≈ 14Hz

The only external force on a walking machine is imparted by the ground.

Considering Newtonian Mechanics, zero Ground Reaction Forces lead to zero motion (f = m α)

Large Ground Reaction Forces lead to large acceleration and large speed

A leg during swing phase does

not contribute to motion of the

machine.

Zero Stiffness Ground

Ground Reaction forces = 0

The fundamental method of creating locomotion for the walking machine is the generation of appropriate ground reaction forces on the machine leg that is in contact with the ground, not the leg which is swinging; in fact, the leg during the swing phase should not be powered to save energy.

Actual Ground

Ground Reaction Forces = f ( T1, T2 and K)

The Ground Reaction Forces are the “Actuators” of a Walking Machine

Electronic Schematic Walking Machine

Inclined Maneuvers Walking Machine

ηW Cos () +W Sin ()

The Ground Reaction Forces must be controlled

to be larger than ηW Cos () +W Sin ()

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