Standard sps5a molecular motion
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Standard: SPS5a - Molecular Motion. Activator. EQ: How is molecular motion is based on temperature?. Activator: : Kinetic theory and the states of matter. Summarizer: The 5 states of matter graphic organizer. HW: Density calculations. Kinetic Theory Lecture/discussion/notes.

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Standard: SPS5a - Molecular Motion

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Standard sps5a molecular motion

Standard: SPS5a - Molecular Motion

Activator

EQ: How is molecular motion is based on temperature?

Activator: : Kinetic theory and the states of matter

Summarizer: The 5 states of matter graphic organizer

HW: Density calculations

Kinetic Theory Lecture/discussion/notes

Introduction to Density

Item 1

Item 2

Item 3

Homework


Standards sps5a states of matter sps2a density

Standards: SPS5a States of matter, SPS2a - Density

Activator

EQEQ: Why do some objects sink while others float in water?

EQ: How is molecular motion is based on temperature?

Activator: Interpolation and Extrapolation

Summarizer: Complete Dry Ice lab Questions

HW: Complete Q 5 - 11of Graphing Relationships.

Complete Density Lab Questions.

Density Lab

Dry Ice Lab

Item 1

Item 2

Item 3

Homework


Measurement lab table

Measurement Lab Table


Standards sps2a density

Standards: SPS2a Density

Activator

EQ: Why do some objects sink while others float in water?

Activator: Density Enrichment

Data Collection for Graphing Relationships

HW: Density calculations

Introduction to Density

Density calculations

Item 1

Item 2

Item 3

Homework


Standard sps5a molecular motion

Kinetic Theory

  • Matter – anything that has mass and takes up space

  • The word “kinetic” means movement

  • Three main parts of the kinetic Theory theory:

    • All matter is made of tiny particles

    • These particles are in constant motion

    • The higher the temperature, the faster the particles move. At the same temperature, heavier particles move slower.


Kinetic energy and temperature

Kinetic Energy and Temperature

  • The state of matter is determined by how fast particles move and how often they bump into each other…..

    that is…..how much Kinetic energy they have.

  • The higher the temperature more kinetic energy the have and the faster the particles move.


Standard sps5a molecular motion

Phase change names


Exothermic and endothermic

Exothermic and Endothermic

Exothermic

Endothermic

EXO – out like “exit”

  • Give off ( lose energy)

  • Particles slow down

  • Decrease in temperature of substance

ENDO- in like “entrance”

  • Take in ( gain Energy)

  • Particles speed up

  • Increase in Temperature of substance


We all know about

We all know about:

SOLIDS

LIQUIDS

GASES

Lower Temperature

Higher Temperature


Plasma

Two states of matter you did not know much about

Plasma

Bose-EinsteinCondensate


Standard sps5a molecular motion

But what happens if you raise the temperature to super-high levels…between 1000°C and 1,000,000,000°C ?


Some places where plasmas are found

Some places where plasmas are found…

1.Flames


Standard sps5a molecular motion

2. Lightning


Standard sps5a molecular motion

3. Aurora (Northern Lights)


Standard sps5a molecular motion

4. Neon lights


Standard sps5a molecular motion

5. Stars

Stars make up 99% of the total matter in the Universe.Therefore, 99% of everything that exists in the entire Universe is in the plasma state.


Standard sps5a molecular motion

6. Clouds of gas and dust around stars

6


So now we know all about four states of matter

So now we know all about four states of matter:

PLASMAS(only for low density ionized gases)

LIQUIDS

GASES

SOLIDS

Lower Temperature

Higher Temperature


Standard sps5a molecular motion

But now what happens if you lower the temperature way, way, down to100 nano degrees above “Absolute Zero” (-273°C)

What is absolute zero?


Standard sps5a molecular motion

In 1924, two scientists, Albert Einstein and Satyendra Bose got together to compare bad grey hairstyles... Who won???

Einstein

Bose

+


Standard sps5a molecular motion

Neither man won but they predicted a 5th state of matter which would occur at very, very low temperatures

Einstein

Bose

+


Standard sps5a molecular motion

In 1995, an MIT scientist Wolfgang Ketterle and his team of graduate students discovered the 5th state of matter for the first time.

Ketterle and his students

And named it after the Great men who had theorized about it:

Bose-Einstein Condensate


Standard sps5a molecular motion

In a Bose-Einstein condensate, atoms can no longer bounce around as individuals. Instead they must all act in exactly the same way, and you can no longer tell them apart!


Standard sps5a molecular motion

Some computer images of Bose-Einstein Condensates…


To really understand bose einstein condensate you need to know

To really understand Bose-Einstein condensate you need to know

Quantum Physics


Summary

Summary…

PLASMAS(only for low density ionized gases)

BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE

LIQUIDS

SOLIDS

GASES

Lower Temperature

Higher Temperature


Phase changes and energy transfer

Phase Changes and Energy Transfer

  • Phase change is a physical change.

  • Molecules and atoms don’t change

  • The mass doesn’t change but the volume does change

  • The particle motion changes


5 states of matter

Lower Temperature

5 States of Matter

Bose-Einstein Condensate

SOLID

Particles are spread out

Particles move all over the place

Particles can flow

Take the volume of whatever container they are in.

Have lots of kinetic energy

Particles are superheated to the point where they become equal amounts of positively and negatively charged particles.

Particles are tightly packed

Particles vibrate in place ( Definite Shape)

Particles can not flow

Constant volume

Have very low kinetic energy

Atoms can no longer bounce around as individuals. Instead they must all act in exactly the same way, and you can no longer tell them apart! Almost no kinetic energy

LIQUID

Particles are able to slide past each other

Particles can flow

Constant volume

Have a medium kinetic energy level

GAS

PLASMA

Higher Temperature


Standard sps5a molecular motion

Mass, Volume, & Density


Standard sps5a molecular motion

Mass

Measurement of the amount of matter(or stuff) in an object

Measured in grams (g)

Volume

Measurement of the amount of space an object takes up

  • Measured in milliliters (ml) or cm3


Which do you think would have the greater volume and he greater mass

Which do you think would have the greater volume and he greater mass?

1 kg of rocks

  • 1 kg of feathers


Which one is more dense

Which one is more dense?

Demonstration: People in a square

How about this: Which square is more dense?


Which one is more dense1

Which one is more dense?

Now which one is more dense?


Standard sps5a molecular motion

Density

Density is defined as mass per unit volume. It is a measure of how tightly packed and how heavy the molecules are in an object. Density is the amount of matter (mass) within a certain volume.

Density = Mass g

Volume cm³


Units for density g cm 3 or g ml

Units for density - g/cm3 or g/ml

Formula:

M = mass V= volume D = density

M = D x V V = M / D D = M / V


Quick practice

Quick Practice

1 Frank has a paper clip. It has a mass of 9g and a volume of 3cm3. What is its density?

2. Frank also has an eraser. It has a mass of 3g, and a volume of 1cm3. What is its density?

3. Jack has a rock. The rock has a mass of 6g and a volume of 3cm3. What is the density of the rock?

4. Jill has a gel pen. The gel pen has a mass of 8g and a volume of 2cm3. What is the density of the rock?


Behavior of gases

Behavior of Gases


Particle collisions and pressure

Particle Collisions and Pressure

  • We know from kinetic theory that Gas particles are constantly moving and colliding with anything in their path.

  • The collisions of these particles cause pressure.

  • Pressure is the amount of force per unit of area.

  • P = F/A.

  • The SI unit of pressure is Pascal (Pa).


Boyle s law

Boyle's Law

  • According to Boyle's law, if you decrease the volume of a container of gas and hold the temperature constant, the pressure of the gas will increase.

  • An increase in the volume of the container causes the pressure to drop, while temperature remains constant.

  • Boyle’s law is written as P1V1 =P2V2


Graph of boyle s law

Graph of Boyle’s Law

  • Volume vs. Pressure for a Fixed Amount of Gas at Constant Temperature


Charles law

Charles' Law

  • According to Charles's Law, the volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature long as pressure does not change.

  • The volume of a gas shrinks with decreasing temperature.

  • Charles’ Law can be written as V1/T1 = V2/T2

60ºC

30ºC


Graph of charles law

Graph of Charles’ Law

  • Temperature v. Volume for a Fixed Amount of Gas at Constant Pressure

Volume m3

Temperature K


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