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Standard: SPS5a - Molecular Motion

Activator

EQ: How is molecular motion is based on temperature?

Activator: : Kinetic theory and the states of matter

Summarizer: The 5 states of matter graphic organizer

HW: Density calculations

Kinetic Theory Lecture/discussion/notes

Introduction to Density

Item 1

Item 2

Item 3

Homework

Standards: SPS5a States of matter, SPS2a - Density

Activator

EQEQ: Why do some objects sink while others float in water?

EQ: How is molecular motion is based on temperature?

Activator: Interpolation and Extrapolation

Summarizer: Complete Dry Ice lab Questions

HW: Complete Q 5 - 11of Graphing Relationships.

Complete Density Lab Questions.

Density Lab

Dry Ice Lab

Item 1

Item 2

Item 3

Homework

Standards: SPS2a Density

Activator

EQ: Why do some objects sink while others float in water?

Activator: Density Enrichment

Data Collection for Graphing Relationships

HW: Density calculations

Introduction to Density

Density calculations

Item 1

Item 2

Item 3

Homework

- Matter – anything that has mass and takes up space
- The word “kinetic” means movement
- Three main parts of the kinetic Theory theory:
- All matter is made of tiny particles
- These particles are in constant motion
- The higher the temperature, the faster the particles move. At the same temperature, heavier particles move slower.

Kinetic Energy and Temperature

- The state of matter is determined by how fast particles move and how often they bump into each other…..

that is…..how much Kinetic energy they have.

- The higher the temperature more kinetic energy the have and the faster the particles move.

Exothermic and Endothermic

Exothermic

Endothermic

EXO – out like “exit”

- Give off ( lose energy)
- Particles slow down
- Decrease in temperature of substance

ENDO- in like “entrance”

- Take in ( gain Energy)
- Particles speed up
- Increase in Temperature of substance

But what happens if you raise the temperature to super-high levels…between 1000°C and 1,000,000,000°C ?

Stars make up 99% of the total matter in the Universe.Therefore, 99% of everything that exists in the entire Universe is in the plasma state.

So now we know all about four states of matter:

PLASMAS(only for low density ionized gases)

LIQUIDS

GASES

SOLIDS

Lower Temperature

Higher Temperature

But now what happens if you lower the temperature way, way, down to100 nano degrees above “Absolute Zero” (-273°C)

What is absolute zero?

In 1924, two scientists, Albert Einstein and Satyendra Bose got together to compare bad grey hairstyles... Who won???

Einstein

Bose

+

Neither man won but they predicted a 5th state of matter which would occur at very, very low temperatures

Einstein

Bose

+

In 1995, an MIT scientist Wolfgang Ketterle and his team of graduate students discovered the 5th state of matter for the first time.

Ketterle and his students

And named it after the Great men who had theorized about it:

Bose-Einstein Condensate

In a Bose-Einstein condensate, atoms can no longer bounce around as individuals. Instead they must all act in exactly the same way, and you can no longer tell them apart!

To really understand Bose-Einstein condensate you need to know

Quantum Physics

Summary…

PLASMAS(only for low density ionized gases)

BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE

LIQUIDS

SOLIDS

GASES

Lower Temperature

Higher Temperature

Phase Changes and Energy Transfer

- Phase change is a physical change.
- Molecules and atoms don’t change
- The mass doesn’t change but the volume does change
- The particle motion changes

5 States of Matter

Bose-Einstein Condensate

SOLID

Particles are spread out

Particles move all over the place

Particles can flow

Take the volume of whatever container they are in.

Have lots of kinetic energy

Particles are superheated to the point where they become equal amounts of positively and negatively charged particles.

Particles are tightly packed

Particles vibrate in place ( Definite Shape)

Particles can not flow

Constant volume

Have very low kinetic energy

Atoms can no longer bounce around as individuals. Instead they must all act in exactly the same way, and you can no longer tell them apart! Almost no kinetic energy

LIQUID

Particles are able to slide past each other

Particles can flow

Constant volume

Have a medium kinetic energy level

GAS

PLASMA

Higher Temperature

Mass

Measurement of the amount of matter(or stuff) in an object

Measured in grams (g)

Volume

Measurement of the amount of space an object takes up

- Measured in milliliters (ml) or cm3

Which one is more dense?

Demonstration: People in a square

How about this: Which square is more dense?

Which one is more dense?

Now which one is more dense?

Density is defined as mass per unit volume. It is a measure of how tightly packed and how heavy the molecules are in an object. Density is the amount of matter (mass) within a certain volume.

Density = Mass g

Volume cm³

Units for density - g/cm3 or g/ml

Formula:

M = mass V= volume D = density

M = D x V V = M / D D = M / V

Quick Practice

1 Frank has a paper clip. It has a mass of 9g and a volume of 3cm3. What is its density?

2. Frank also has an eraser. It has a mass of 3g, and a volume of 1cm3. What is its density?

3. Jack has a rock. The rock has a mass of 6g and a volume of 3cm3. What is the density of the rock?

4. Jill has a gel pen. The gel pen has a mass of 8g and a volume of 2cm3. What is the density of the rock?

Particle Collisions and Pressure

- We know from kinetic theory that Gas particles are constantly moving and colliding with anything in their path.
- The collisions of these particles cause pressure.
- Pressure is the amount of force per unit of area.
- P = F/A.
- The SI unit of pressure is Pascal (Pa).

Boyle\'s Law

- According to Boyle\'s law, if you decrease the volume of a container of gas and hold the temperature constant, the pressure of the gas will increase.
- An increase in the volume of the container causes the pressure to drop, while temperature remains constant.
- Boyle’s law is written as P1V1 =P2V2

Graph of Boyle’s Law

- Volume vs. Pressure for a Fixed Amount of Gas at Constant Temperature

Charles\' Law

- According to Charles\'s Law, the volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature long as pressure does not change.
- The volume of a gas shrinks with decreasing temperature.
- Charles’ Law can be written as V1/T1 = V2/T2

60ºC

30ºC

Graph of Charles’ Law

- Temperature v. Volume for a Fixed Amount of Gas at Constant Pressure

Volume m3

Temperature K

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