Anxiety
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ANXIETY. Controlling anxiety Different types Measuring REF: P. 142 - 154. ANXIETY an emotional state similar to fear associated with physiological (somatic) arousal psychological (cognitive) arousal feelings of nervousness feelings of apprehension (Task) Copy key terms p.142.

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ANXIETY

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Anxiety

ANXIETY

Controlling anxiety

Different types

Measuring

REF: P. 142 - 154


Anxiety1

ANXIETY

an emotional state

similar to fear

associated with

physiological (somatic) arousal

psychological (cognitive) arousal

feelings of nervousness

feelings of apprehension

(Task)

Copy key terms p.142

Anxiety

STATE ANXIETY - A STATE

an emotional response to a particular situation

characterised by feelings of nervousness and apprehension

often temporary

REFER TO RUGBY KICKING EG. ON P. 143

ANXIETY

  • TRAIT ANXIETY - A TRAIT

  • (Speilberger)

  • an inbuilt (trait) part of the personality

  • a tendency to be fearful of unfamiliar situations

  • a tendency to perceive competitive situations as threatening

  • a tendency to respond to competitive situations with apprehension and tension


The effect of audience

AROUSAL CAUSED BY AUDIENCE EVALUATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF A CORRECT DOMINANT RESPONSE

audience evaluation causes arousal

if a skill is poorly learnt (early in the learning curve)

then arousal causes incorrect response

because incorrect response is dominant

Arousal and Audience

THE EFFECT OF AUDIENCE

  • if a skill is well-learnt (later in the learning curve)

  • then arousal causes correct response

  • because the correct response is dominant

  • look at inverted U theory for connection between arousal and performance


Measurement of anxiety stress

QUESTIONNAIRES

Marten’s Sport Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT)

measures emotional and physiological responses to stress in the competitive situation

Speilberger’s State, Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)

measures emotional and physiological responses to stress in general and specific situations

BEHAVIOURAL MEASURES

the performance of sports players is observed

a subjective method

PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES

require laboratory testing equipment, objective methods

examples :

galvanic skin response

electrocardiogram

electroencephalogram

Stress and Anxiety

MEASUREMENT OF ANXIETY / STRESS


The scat test

THE SCAT TEST

  • http://www.brianmac.co.uk/scat.htm

  • Note down your anxiety level

  • Take the test online

    Read the instructions so you know what your results mean!!

    Print your results off as well as the instructions for the test!


Stress and stressors

STRESS

a response of the body to any demands made on it

symptoms of stress

physiological

psychological

behavioural

Emotional Control

STRESS AND STRESSORS


Stressors

STRESSORS

social

disapproval of parents / peers

rejection by peers / parents

isolation from normal social interactions

chemical / biochemical

harm by ingestion of substances

bacterial

illness caused by micro-organisms

physical

injury / pain / exhaustion

climatic

extremes of weather

hot weather for endurance activities

rain and cold on bare skin

psychological

mismatch between perception of demands of task

and ability to cope

Emotional Control

STRESSORS


Effect of stress on performance

INHIBITION

inhibition of performance

PERFORMANCE OF SKILLS

stress may act directly on the information processing of skill

motor elements of skill are performed less well

muscles tense

muscular control is reduced

CONCENTRATION

concentration is difficult

span of attention is narrowed

STRESS

awareness of being under stress itself acts as a stressor

Emotional Control

EFFECT OF STRESS ON PERFORMANCE


Symptoms of stress

PHYSIOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS

increased heart rate

increased blood pressure

increased sweating

increased breathing rate

decreased flow of blood to the skin

increased oxygen uptake

dry mouth

PSYCHLOGICAL SYMPTOMS

worry

feeling overwhelmed

inability to make decisions

inability to concentrate

inability to direct attention appropriately

narrowing of attention

feeling out of control

BEHAVIOURAL SYMPTOMS

rapid talking

nail biting

pacing

scowling

yawning

trembling

raised voice pitch

frequent urination

Emotional Control

SYMPTOMS OF STRESS


The management of stress

Emotional Control

THE MANAGEMENT OF STRESS


Relaxation techniques

IMAGERY RELAXATION

think of a place with associations of warmth and relaxation

imagine the activity or technique

practise in non-stressful situations

use prior to competition

PROGRESSIVE RELAXATION TRAINING (PRT)

learn to tense then deeply relax separate muscle groups

CENTRING

control of physiological symptoms of stress by focusing on control of the diaphragm and deep breathing

SELF-DIRECTED RELAXATION TRAINING

focus on each of the major muscle groups in turn

allow breathing to become slow and easy

visualise the tension flowing out of a muscle group

until completely relaxed

eventually combine muscle groups

and achieve total relaxation quickly

Control of Stress

RELAXATION TECHNIQUES


Stress control techniques

BIOFEEDBACK

monitor skin temperature

cold if stressed

warm if unstressed

galvanic skin response

electrical conductivity of skin increases when moist

tense muscle cause sweating

electromygraphy

electrodes taped to specific muscles

can detect electrical activity

hence tension in muscle

SELF-TALK

talking through the process of a competitive situation

talking positively, building self-confidence

Control of Stress

COGNITIVE STRESS MANAGEMENT

control of emotions and thought processes

linked to attributions

eliminate negative feelings

develop self-confidence

STRESS CONTROL TECHNIQUES


Mental preparation for performance

MENTAL REHEARSAL

consciously imagine a performance

rerun a past experience

preview hope-for success

helps concentration

helps focus on strengths and weaknesses

positive effect on skill learning

but not as good as actual practice

GOAL SETTING

success is more likely because :

learning is focused

uncertainty is reduced

confidence is increased

practice is planned and structured

evaluation and feedback are specific

Emotional Control

MENTAL PREPARATION FOR PERFORMANCE


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