Periodic table
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Periodic Table. Patterns in Element Properties. Some elements exhibit similar chemical and physical properties. For example, lithium (Li), sodium (Na), and Potassium (K) can all combine in a 1:1 ratio easily with Chlorine. Elements With Similar Properties.

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Periodic Table

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Periodic table

Periodic Table


Patterns in element properties

Patterns in Element Properties

  • Some elements exhibit similar chemical and physical properties. For example, lithium (Li), sodium (Na), and Potassium (K) can all combine in a 1:1 ratio easily with Chlorine.


Elements with similar properties

Elements With Similar Properties

  • The elements chlorine, bromine, and iodine look very different from each other. But each forms a similar-looking while solid when it reacts with sodium.


John newlands noticed a periodic pattern

John Newlands Noticed a Periodic Pattern

  • In 1865, an English chemist, John Newlands, arranged the known elements according to their properties and in order of increasing atomic mass.

  • He noticed that all of the elements in a given row had similar properties, and they repeated every 8 elements (he called this the law of octaves).


Newlands table

Newlands’ Table

  • In Newland’s time, determining atomic

    weights was based on comparing other elements to the lightest element

    (hydrogen). Some of the elements were

    given inaccurate values. .

  • Newland was ridiculed by other chemists who felt the table he created was not reliable. He could not get his papers published and returned as chief chemist in a sugar factory and later opened a chemical business with his brother.


Dmitri mendeleev invented the first periodic table

Dmitri Mendeleev Invented the First Periodic Table

  • In 1869, a Russian chemist, Dmitri Mendeleev produced the first orderly arrangement (periodic table) of all 63 elements known at the time.


Mendeleev the father of the periodic table

Mendeleev—the Father ofthe Periodic Table

  • Mendeleev (1834-1907) rose from very poor beginnings to a position of a renowned Russian chemist in the 19th century. He wrote down information on each element on cards. He ranked the elements from lightest to heaviest.

  • Mendeleev also put the elements into a table according to their properties. He started a new row each time he noticed that the chemical properties of the elements repeated.


Mendeleev correctly predicted the gaps

Mendeleev Correctly Predicted the Gaps

  • Mendeleev’s Table contains gaps that elements with particular properties should fill.

  • He correctly predicted the

    properties of the missing

    elements. He even gave them

    provisional names. These

    elements were eventually

    discovered.


Henry moseley

Henry Moseley

  • A young English chemist, Henry Moseley, discovered that the elements should be organized according to their atomic numbers, not their atomic weights as was done before.

  • When Moseley studied the lines in

    the X-ray spectra of 38 different

    elements, he found that the

    wavelength of the lines decreased

    in a regular manner as atomic

    number increased.


Henry moseley1

Henry Moseley

  • Henry Moseley lost his life in 1915

    during World War I at the Gallipoli

    battle in Turkey at the age of 27 and

    is buried there. His death has been called

    one of the greatest

    tragedies of WWI

    because he was such

    a brilliant chemist.


The periodic law

The Periodic Law

  • The Periodic Law states that when the elements are arranged according to their atomic numbers, elements

    with similar properties

    appear at regular intervals.


Organization of the periodic table

Organization of the Periodic Table

  • Elements in each column of the table have the same number of electrons in their outer energy level.

  • These electrons are called valence electrons.


Valence electrons

Valence Electrons

  • The outer energy level electrons in an atom are the ones that participate in chemical reactions with other atoms.

  • Elements with the same number of valence electrons react in similar ways.


Groups

Groups

  • A vertical column on the periodic table is called a group. (These are also called families.) These exhibit similar properties.


Relationship between groups and electron configuration

Relationship between Groups and Electron Configuration:

  • The group an element belongs to is determined by the last notation in its’ electron configuration.

  • For example, all elements that end in s1 have the same properties and are in the same group.


Periods

Periods

  • A horizontal row on the periodic table is called a period. Elements in the same period have the same number of occupied energy levels.


Blocks of elements

Blocks of Elements

  • The Periodic Table is organized into blocks—each corresponding to the sublevels. (S, P, D, and F)


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