Is Gender Appropriateness of Sport also Haunting Children with Disabilities
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Is Gender Appropriateness of Sport also Haunting Children with Disabilities. Wei- Ru , Yao 1 Chu-Min Liao 2 , & Deborah Shapiro 1 Georgia State University 1 & National Taiwan Sport University 2 AAHPERD 2014. Benefits From Exercise. Adult. Childhood. Exercise Habitual Behavior.

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Is Gender Appropriateness of Sport also Haunting Children with Disabilities

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Is Gender Appropriateness of Sport also Haunting Children with Disabilities

Wei-Ru, Yao1 Chu-Min Liao2, & Deborah Shapiro1

Georgia State University1 & National Taiwan Sport University2

AAHPERD 2014


Benefits From Exercise

Adult

Childhood

Exercise Habitual Behavior

(Dennison, Straus, Mcllits, & Charney, 1988)


Significant Others

Parents

Coaches

Children

Peers

(Chang, 1999; Liao, 2008; Harter, 1999; Wigfield & Eccles, 2000)


Mechanism

Children

Parents

Role Model

Expectancy Belief

&

Value Belief

Expectancy Belief

&

Value Belief

Interpreters of Experience

Providers of Experience

(Eccles et al., 1983; Eccles, 1991; Wigfield, 1997; Lee & Liao, 2005; Lin & Liao, 2005; Lai & Liao, 2007)


Disability Types

Social Contact

Intellectual Disability

Open-Ended Items

Enhancing Physical Ability

(Megginson, Nakamura, & Frust,1997)

Social Experience

Spinal Injury

Interview & Field Notes

Sport Skills

(An & Goodwin, 2007)

Avoiding Social Isolation

Emotional Adjustment

Self-Report & Interview

Physical Disability

Promoting Physical Fitness

(Kozub, 2001; Melograno & Loovis, 1991; Antle, Mills, Steele, & Rossen, 2007)


Purpose

Gender

Parents’ Motives

Disability Types


Research Questions

Gender

1

Parents’ Motives

Disability Types

Hearing Impairment

Physical Disability

2

Visual Impairment

Intellectual Disability


Participants

  • 184 parents

    • fathers=78 & mothers=106,

    • elementary school children with disabilities

    • boys=113 & girls=71

    • from north, middle, and south of Taiwan, including ten cities and counties.

  • Four disability types

    • Physical Disability (PD) =42,

    • Hearing Impairment (HI) =35,

    • Visual Impairment (VI)=7,

    • Intellectual Disability (ID) =100


Instruments

  • Demographic Questionnaire

    • Gender, Age, Disability Type, Severity of Disability, Grade

  • Exercise Participation Motives (Wu, 2009)

    • 33 Items

    • Six sub-categories,

      • Personal fitness and skill improvement (n=9),

      • Social expectation and external factor (n=6),

      • Competition and challenge (n=6),

      • Social enhancement(n=5),

      • Positive emotion and friendship (n=5),

      • Teamwork (n=2)


Procedures

  • Recovery Rate: 44%

Telephone Contact

Permission

Follow Up

Two Weeks


Data Analysis

  • Two One-way MANOVAs

Dependent Variables

  • Personal Fitness & Skill Improvement

Independent Variables

  • Competition & Challenge

Children’s Gender

  • Social Expectation & External Factor

Six Sub-Categories

Children’s Disability Types

  • Social Enhancement

  • Positive Emotion & Friendship

  • Teamwork


Results

  • No gender differences were found on parent’smotives.


Results

  • No disability type differences were found on parents’motives except “Teamwork”.


Post Hoc Analysis

Hearing Impairment

Teamwork

>

Intellectual Disability

Physical Disability

F (18, 481.32)=1.70, Wilk’s Lambda= .82, p< .05


Discussion

  • Inconsistent with past statements and research findings

Parents’ Motives

(Chang, 1994; Nancy, 2007; Eccles, Wigfield, Harold, & Blumenfeld, 1993; Wigfield et al.,1997; Wigfield & Eccles, 2000)

  • But support Martin’s (2006) research results

  • Parental encouragement for athletes with disabilities did not vary according to gender.

  • (Martin, 2006)

  • The effect of gender appropriateness of sport appears to be diminished in children with disabilities


Discussion

  • Disability type does not influence parents’ motives for their child’s sport and exercise participation

    • Benefits

  • Teamwork

    • Lack Interaction Opportunities with Others

(Moola et al.,2007; Dunn & Dunn, 2006; Sherrill, 1997; Blind & McClung, 1997)

(Chang,2005;Antle, Mills, Steele, & Rossen, 2007)


Practical Application

  • Programming should be based on parents’ needs

  • Extracurricular athletic opportunities

    • More options and opportunities for parents


Is Gender Appropriateness of Sport also Haunting Children with Disabilities

Wei-Ru, Yao1 Chu-Min Liao2, & Deborah Shapiro1

Georgia State University1 & National Taiwan Sport University2

AAHPERD 2014


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