Teaching Children with Learning Disabilities. NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS. LEARNING DISABILITIES. Examples I. Introduction and Definition under IDEA A. Information Processing Disorder B. Difficulties in Learning C. Exclusionary Rule
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NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS
I. Introduction and Definition under IDEA
A. Information Processing Disorder
B. Difficulties in Learning
C. Exclusionary Rule
D. Discrepancy Controversy
(1) a disorder in theprocessing of information
involved in understanding and using language (spoken or written)
(2)Difficulties in learning,particularly reading, writing, mathematics, and/or spelling
(3) Theproblem isnot primarily due to other causes
(4)Special educational services neededto succeed in school
**Severe discrepancy between potential and achievement
Information processing refers to how your brain:
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Auditory Processing-involves how well a student can use auditory information.
Dyslexia-Severe difficulty learning to read
Dysgraphia- Severe difficulty learning to write
Dyscalculia- Severe difficulty learning to do mathematical concepts and computation
Dysorthographia- Severe difficulty learning to spell
qObject Orientation and Object Identification
3Object Orientation and Object Identification
Emotional, Cultural or Economic Disadvantage3. Problem is NOT Primarily Due to Other Causes
It is possible for a student to "technically" have a disability but not to "qualify" for special education services.
This happens when a student demonstrates the information processing difficulties associated with a LD but his or her academic skills are not found to be "severely discrepant" from their ability. This may indicate that the student has learned how to "cope" with his/her learning difficulties at least to some extent.
may have trouble learning the alphabet, or connecting letters to their sounds;
may make many mistakes when reading aloud, and repeat and pause often;
may not understand what he or she reads;
may have real trouble with spelling;
may confuse math symbols and misread numbers;III. Characteristics
may have very messy handwriting or hold a pencil awkwardly; letters to their sounds;
may struggle to express ideas in writing;
may learn language late and have a limited vocabulary;
may not follow the social rules of conversation, such as taking turns, and may stand too close to the listener;III. Characteristics
may have trouble remembering the sounds that letters make or hearing slight differences between words;
may have trouble following directions;
may not be able to retell a story in order (what happened first, second, third)
may mispronounce words or use a wrong word that sounds similar;
may have trouble organizing what he or she wants to say or not be able to think of the word he or she needs for writing or conversation;III. Characteristics