Geological Time
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Geological Time. Relative Geological Time. Concept that a specific sequence of events have resulted in the evolution of the Earth to its current state. The relative timing of events may be unraveled by careful examination of the “Rock Record”. Relative Geological Time. Principles :

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Geological time

Geological Time


Geological time

Relative Geological Time

Concept that a specific sequence of events have resulted in the evolution of the Earth to its current state.

The relative timing of events may be unraveled by careful examination of the “Rock Record”.


Geological time

Relative Geological Time

  • Principles:

    • Principle of Uniformitarianism:“The present is the key to the past”.

    • Studying processes today gives insight into past events.

  • Principle of Original Horizontality: Beds of sedimentary rock are deposited in a horizontal orientation.

  • Principle of Superposition:In a sequence of undisturbed sedimentary rocks, the layers get younger upwards.

  • Principle of Lateral Continuity:Original sedimentary layers extend laterally until they thin at its edges.


Geological time

Relative Geological Time

  • Principles (cont.):

    • Principle of Inclusions:Inclusions are older than the rock in which they are contained.

  • Principle of Cross-Cutting Relations:A disrupted pattern is older than the cause of the disruption.

  • Principle of Fossil Succession:Fossils contained in strata are related to the age of the rocks.


Geological time

Principles of original horizontality, cross-cutting relations, & superposition.

Block diagram of Miner Canyon contains:

1) Flat-lying sequence of sedimentary rocks;

2) Tilted sequence of sedimentary rocks;

3) Angular unconformity between 1 & 2;

4) Two igneous intrusions – granite and dike.

NOTE: granite is cut by an angular unconformity, so it is therefore older than the event that created the unconformity.


Fig 08 02

Fig. 08.02

Step 1: Deposition – horizontal


Fig 08 03

Fig. 08.03

Step 1 (cont.): Deposition – horizontal


Fig 08 04

Fig. 08.04

Step 2: Intrusion of granite


Fig 08 05

Fig. 08.05

Step 3: Titling of sequence

Step 4: Erosion to create unconformity


Fig 08 06

Fig. 08.06

Step 5a: Submergence and deposition of Larsonton Formation and…..


Fig 08 07

Fig. 08.07

Step 5b: ….. possibly additional formations


Fig 08 08

Fig. 08.08

Step 6: Intrusion of dike


Fig 08 09

Fig. 08.09

Step 7: Erosion of Larsonton Formation – disconformity


Fig 08 10

Fig. 08.10

Step 8: Submergence and deposition of Foster City, Hamlinville and Skinner Gulch sequences


Fig 08 11

Fig. 08.11

Step 9: Erosion due to stream


Geological time

Make sure you understand this Table as it relates to the Figure!


Fig 08 12

Fig. 08.12

Principle of Inclusions


Fig 08 13

Fig. 08.13

Principles of Fossil Succession and Lateral Continuity


Geological time

Unconformities

Surface that represents a break in the geologic record. The rock unit(s) immediately above the break is/are much younger than that/those below.

Usually represent buried erosional surfaces – parcel of geology is missing!


Geological time

Unconformities

Three types:

1) Disconformity: unconformity is parallel to layering, but there is a gap in the geologic record.

Typically erosional and hard to spot.

Look for weathering surfaces, boulders/pebbles of older rock in younger.

2) Angular Unconformity: Younger strata overly older rocks that were tilted/folded.

3) Nonconformity: A contact in which an erosional surface on a plutonic or metamorphic rock has been covered by younger sediments or volcanic rocks (i.e., unconformity separates different rock types).


Reasons for unconformities

Reasons for Unconformities

  • Formation of unconformity involves:

  • Horizontal or conformable strata or beds are formed

  • Break in sedimentation or deposition

  • Happens due to tectonic movements, that causes uplift or subsidence of land surface

  • Next phase of Deposition or sedimentation cycle, where new sedimentation produce another set of conformable beds


Fig 08 14a d

Fig. 08.14a-d

Angular Unconformity


Fig 08 14e

Fig. 08.14e


Fig 08 15a f

Fig. 08.15a-f

Nonconformity


Fig 08 131

Fig. 08.13

Disconformity


Geological time

After this is the test!!


Geological time

There is an unconformity.

Where is it?

What type is it?

http://epod.usra.edu/archive/images/telheiroweb.jpg


Geological time

There is an unconformity.

Where is it?

What type is it?

http://www.cerritos.edu/earth-science/images/ESCI_110_Lecture_notes_images/Sandia_unconformity.jpg


Geological time

There is a fold.

What type?

How do you know?

There is an unconformity.

Where is it?

What type is it?

How do you know?

http://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/Oil/primer05.html


Geological time

There are several unconformities.

Where are they?

What types are?


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