Forces that shape earth and geological time
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Forces that Shape Earth and Geological Time!. CGC1D- Canadian Geography. Planet Earth. Geologic History Cenozoic (66 mya – present) Mesozoic (245 -66 mya) Dinosaurs Paleozoic (570 -245 mya) Ancient Life Precambrian (4600 -570 mya) Earliest Life Landforms Rock Cycle. Earth’s Interior.

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Forces that Shape Earth and Geological Time!

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Forces that shape earth and geological time

Forces that Shape Earth and Geological Time!

CGC1D- Canadian Geography


Planet earth

Planet Earth

  • Geologic History

    • Cenozoic (66 mya – present)

    • Mesozoic (245 -66 mya) Dinosaurs

    • Paleozoic (570 -245 mya) Ancient Life

    • Precambrian (4600 -570 mya) Earliest Life

  • Landforms

  • Rock Cycle


Earth s interior

Earth’s Interior

HYDROSPHERE

ATMOSPHERE

Air

Water

  • Crust/Asthenosphere

  • - 8-64 km thick

  • - cold & fragile

  • Granite and

  • Basalt

Land

LITHOSPHERE

Mantle

- 1800 km thick

- hot & molten

- Magnesium and Silicon

Outer Core

- 2000 km thick

- 3 - 4000°C

- liquid Nickel and Iron

Inner Core

- 1400 km thick

- 5 - 6000°C

- solid Nickel and Iron


Geologic history

Geologic History

  • Precambrian Era (Canadian Shield)

Vulcanism

Fault

Ancient Sea

Igneous Rock


Forces that shape earth and geological time

1. Precambrian Canada

  • #1 -TheCanadian (also called the Precambrian) Shield

  • the geologic core of the country

  • ancient (4 billion years in some places), hard igneous rock from which all the other areas were created

  • used to be a huge mountain range


Precambriam

Precambriam

  • Extensive volcanic activity folding/faulting and erosion

    • Intrusive / extrusive igneous rock

    • Cooling, creates Canadian Shield

    • Foundation of Canada’s landmass

    • Heat/Pressure (metamorphism) creates storehouse of Canada’s metallic mineral wealth

    • Surrounded by ancient sea


Geologic history1

Geologic History

  • Paleozoic Era (Shallow seas)

Erosion

Erosion

Sediments

Sediments

Igneous Rock


Forces that shape earth and geological time

  • #2 -Thesurrounding series of plains or lowlands

  • made of sedimentary rock

  • most of the sediments were eroded from the ancient Precambrian Shield

  • includes the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Lowlands, the Interior Plains, the Hudson Bay Lowlands, and the Arctic Lowlands

Erosion

Transportation

Transportation

Deposition

Deposition


Paleozoic con t

Paleozoic con’t

  • Extensive erosion, transportation (rivers), deposition of sediments from the Shield into adjacent seas

  • Compression of sediments in ancient seas create sedimentary rock

  • Today these sedimentary rocks form the bedrock for parts of every province

  • Organisms in seas form basis of oil/gas deposits in west

  • Swamps (tropical climate) create coal beds in east


Geologic history2

Geologic History

  • Late Paleozoic/ Early Mesozoic Era (Appalachians formed!)

Erosion

Sediments

Sediments

Igneous Rock

Mountains Forming


Late paleozoic early mesozoic

Late Paleozoic, early Mesozoic!

  • Creation of super-continent Pangaea folds/faults/uplifts Appalachian mountains in the east

  • NA is very tropical!

  • Sediments keep on building up

  • Breakup of Pangaea as NA Plate moves West colliding with the Pacific Plate


Forces that shape earth and geological time

Finally, Cenozoic era creates today’s mountain ranges…

  • #3 - The mountainous rim

  • also made up of, in part sediments from the ancient Shield, also with metamorphic rock

  • unlike the flat lowland areas, the mountainous rim rocks have been uplifted by tectonic forces

  • there are three main mountain areas that make up the mountainous rim


Forces that shape earth and geological time

  • the Appalachian Mountains (the oldest and hence the lowest due to longer erosion)

  • the Innuitian Mountains of the very far north

  • the Western Cordillera (the youngest, and highest, is actually a series of several different ranges dominated by the famous Rocky Mountains, the most easterly of the Cordilleran ranges)


Geologic history3

Geologic History

  • Cenozoic Era (last 65 million years!)

Sedimentary Mountains Eroding

4.

2.

Mountains Forming

Sedimentary Plains

1.

APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS

PACIFIC OCEAN

ROCKY MOUNTAINS

Igneous Rock

ATLANTIC OCEAN

INTERIOR PLAINS

3.

CANADIAN SHIELD


Forces that shape earth and geological time

3. Mesozoic Canada

Plate Collision

4. Cenozoic Canada

Western Cordillera

Appalachians

Canadian Shield

Great Lakes -

St. Lawrence Lowlands

Interior Plains

Glaciers!!! – ended about 20 000 years ago

Landforms not seen (in the back) - Hudson Bay Lowlands, - Arctic Lowlands,

- Innuitian Mountains


Forces that shape earth and geological time

  • Intrusive Volcanic / tectonic activity begin to uplift the Coastal Range

  • Tectonic forces uplift the Rockies/and as the plate rotates NW the Innuitian Mountains. (Arctic)

  • Dinosaurs roamed inland sea west of the Rockies (Red Deer Alberta) until extinction @ end of Mesosoic

  • Cenozoic: Rockies/Coastal Mntns. continue to form

  • Volcanic Activity create plateaus between Rockies and Coastal Ranges


Rock cycle videos

Rock Cycle Videos

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K8dDq3el_tQ&feature=related

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EcfstbQyrzU


Rock cycle

Rock Cycle

MAGMA

Heats and melts

Cools and hardens

IGNEOUS

METAMORPHIC

Weathers, erodes, and deposits

Stresses or heats

SEDIMENTARY


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