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FAscism. AP World History. Fascism – Democracy Denied. World War I causes Europeans to distrust democracy Communism Fascism Communism and fascism struggle for control over many European countries European countries, especially Germany, are desperate for relief of many ills. . Fascism .

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fascism

FAscism

AP World History

fascism democracy denied
Fascism – Democracy Denied
  • World War I causes Europeans to distrust democracy
    • Communism
    • Fascism
    • Communism and fascism struggle for control over many European countries
  • European countries, especially Germany, are desperate for relief of many ills.
fascism1
Fascism
  • Fascism – “State above All”
    • Intensely nationalistic, conservative, reactionary
    • Sought to revitalize their countries through any means necessary
      • Encouraged violence against enemies
    • Relied on charismatic leaders, oppression, propoganda,and theatrics to lead
    • Condemned individualism, liberalism, feminism, democracy and especially communism
      • All these isms “divided and weakened nations”
fascism2
Fascism
  • Fascist parties existed throughout Europe but most powerful in Spain, Italy, and especially Germany
fascism in italy
Fascism in Italy
  • Social order threatened (conservative landlords, factory working class, veterans, communists, socialists, oh my!)
  • Benito Mussolini : “Il Duce”
    • Charismatic – promised order, removal of communists
    • Private army (Black Shirts)
    • Oppression
    • violence
    • “the trains run on time”
fascism in italy1
Fascism in Italy
  • State control, state power
    • Democracy suspended
      • Opponents “went away” – deported, imprisoned, executed
      • Political parties, unions, peasant groups disbanded
    • Economically – corporate state – make what state needs
    • Culturally looked back to a “pure”, traditional Italian life
      • Catholic culture
      • Women as domestic beings, purpose to bear more children for state
fascism in germany the nazis
Fascism in Germany – The Nazis
  • The Rise of Hitler and the National Socialists (Nazis)
    • Weimar Republic a disaster, economy terrible
    • Elites attacked democratic politicians and blamed them for Germany’s problems
    • Workers facing massive unemployment
      • Elite and middle class conservatives turn toward fascism
      • Urban workers turn toward communism and socialism
  • Communists vs. Fascists
fascism in germany the nazis1
Fascism in Germany – The Nazis
  • Nazi Party – intensely nationalistic –
    • Germany was not only great, but her people racially superior
    • Claimed Germany’s problems were the fault of enemies within (Jews, among others) and enemies without (Britain, France, US)
      • Treaty of Versailles
    • Used depression to garner support
fascism in germany the nazis2
Fascism in Germany – The Nazis
  • Hitler comes to power democratically
  • Policies did bring Germany out of depression
    • Keynesian infrastructure projects
    • Rearmament
    • Unemployment in 1932 – 6.2 million

1936 - <500,000

fascism in germany the nazis3
Fascism in Germany – The Nazis
  • Hitler, like Mussolini
    • Brown and Black Shirts
    • Charismatic
    • Invoked traditional imagery and

values

  • Hitler, unlike Mussolini
    • Intensely anti-Semitic
      • Jews as urban, capitalist, and

foreign- all things good Germans were not

fascism in germany the nazis4
Fascism in Germany – The Nazis
  • Hitler achieved power democratically
    • Once elected, claimed dictatorial power “Der Fuhrer”
    • Scientific racism
    • Increasingly restricted Jewish life
      • Nuremberg Laws (1935)
      • Kristallnacht (1938)
    • German race, folk culture celebrated through theatrical rallies, etc
fascism in japan
Fascism in Japan
  • Like Italy and Germany
    • Limited democratic experience
    • Struggled with unionization, women’s rights, in 1920s
      • Rice Riot 1918
      • Conflict between communism and right wing
    • Great Depression
      • Massive unemployment (urban)
      • Japanese doubt parliamentary democracy
fascism in japan1
Fascism in Japan
  • Like Italy and Germany
    • Move to right wing
      • Radical Nationalism or Revolutionary Right
      • Appealed to younger army officers
      • Nationalistic, anti democracy, dedicated to foreign expansion
    • Turned to large scale public works to bring Japan out of depression
    • Interested in empire building
fascism in japan2
Fascism in Japan
  • Unlike Italy and Germany
    • No major fascist party emerged
    • No charismatic leader like Mussolini or Hitler
  • Japanese government institutions and traditional beliefs were strong enough to prevent fascist takeover
fascism in japan3
Fascism in Japan
  • Military played a dominant role in Japan
    • Focus on military might (martial arts in school)
    • deep, long-lasting respect for military
  • But even military did not govern alone
fascism in japan4
Fascism in Japan
  • Did not reach the level of totalitarianism of Germany or Italy
    • Political prisoners were few, no executions or deportations
  • Racial purity was directed against foreigners, not internal minority
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