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Autism Spectrum Disorders Development of Young Children with Disabilities #872.514 (61) Carol Ann Heath. Autism & PDD. Neurological disorder affecting a child’s abilities: Atypical communication Social reciprocity Repetitive behaviors Autism spectrum: pervasive developmental disorders.

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AutismSpectrum DisordersDevelopment of Young Children with Disabilities#872.514 (61)Carol Ann Heath

autism pdd
Autism & PDD
  • Neurological disorder affecting a child’s abilities:
    • Atypical communication
    • Social reciprocity
    • Repetitive behaviors
  • Autism spectrum: pervasive developmental disorders
dsm iv tr diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 4 th ed text revision
DSM-IV-TR Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4thed, Text Revision

Symptoms pervade all areas of development includes:

  • Autistic disorder
  • Asperger’s disorder
  • Rett’s disorder
  • Childhood disintegrative disorder
  • PDD-NOS
autism
Autism
  • 1943 - Leo Kanner: first described the syndrome of autism; derived from the Greek word for self-absorption; organic condition;
  • 1944- Hans Asperger: diffculties with language and socialization.
  • 1950’s Bettleheim: poor parenting
  • 1970’s – 80’s Lovaas: ABA
characteristics
Characteristics
  • Limited verbal language
  • Atypical social relationships; lack of social interaction and reciprocity
  • Obsessions
  • Repetitive behaviors
  • Ritualized behaviors
  • Fascination with objects and restricted patterns
prevalence
Prevalence
  • Autism & PDD = 1/150
  • Affects boys 4x more often than girls
  • Cause unknown: without a single etiology
    • Researchers finding brain differences
    • Researchers finding biochemical differences
    • Not caused by psychological factors
    • Genetic predisposition with environmental interaction
development
Development
  • Often typical regulation - yrs 1 & 2
  • >2, tendency toward hyper
    • Reactivity
    • Sensitivity
  • Difficult to calm/console
  • Generally, good gross + fine motor skills
development continued
Development continued ...
  • Generally, good
    • Perceptual abilities
      • Sensory capacities
  • Learn about object use more slowly
  • Use objects in atypical ways
  • Pretend play usually limited
  • Emotional flatness
  • Language acquisition severely delayed
diagnosis
Diagnosis
  • Symptoms present by 3 years of age
  • Child displays > 6 of 12 symptoms re:
    • Social interaction
    • Communication
    • Behavior
associated conditions
Associated Conditions
  • Intellectual disability
  • Learning disabilities
  • Epilepsy
  • Tics
  • Sleep disorders
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms
  • Psychiatric conditions
genetic disorders
Genetic Disorders
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Fragilel X
  • Chromosome 15
  • Down Syndrome
  • CHARGE
  • Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome
interventions
Interventions
  • 1 to 1 behavior therapy (Lovaas)
  • Behavior therapy
  • Speech/language therapy
  • Medication
  • Psychotherapy
interventions continued
Interventionscontinued ...
  • SI
  • Special education
  • Nutritional treatments
  • Secretin
  • Family support
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PDD
  • Child with behaviors similar to autism
  • Less severe
  • Do not meet criteria for autism
references
References
  • Hyman, S. L. & Towbin, K. E. Autism spectrum disorders. pp. 325-343. In Batshaw, M. L., Pellegrino, L., & Roizen, N. J. (2007). Children with Disabilities (6th Ed.) Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  • http://www.case.edu/affil/sce/Texts_2005/Autism%20and%20Representation%20Silverman.htm
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