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Memory : The capacity to retain information over time. PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Memory : The capacity to retain information over time. Encoding : the conversion of incoming information into a form that can be stored in memory. Storage : maintaining information in memory over a period of time.

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Memory : The capacity to retain information over time.

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Memory the capacity to retain information over time l.jpg

Memory: The capacity to retain information over time.

  • Encoding: the conversion of incoming information into a form that can be stored in memory.

  • Storage: maintaining information in memory over a period of time.

  • Retrieval: the process of searching for stored information and bringing it to mind.


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Basic Reasons for Forgetting

  • Encoding Failure: information did not get into memory.

  • Storage Failure: information has disappeared from memory; it is no longer in storage.

  • Retrieval Failure: information is stored in memory but it cannot be located.


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Two Major Theories of Forgetting

  • Decay Theory: information in memory eventually disappears if it is not used. (“Use it or lose it.”)

  • Interference Theory: information stays in memory permanently even if it is not used. Forgetting occurs because other things we have learned somehow prevent us from finding the information we want.


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UP NEXT...

A famous experiment that supported the interference theory and went against the decay theory (Jenkins & Dallenbach, 1924).

You learn a list of 10 “nonsense syllables” (like XUG or MUW), then get a test on it 1, 2, 4 or 8 hours later (“retention interval”).

Does it matter if you are asleep or awake during this retention interval?


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Predictions

We are exposed to new information when we are awake but not when we are asleep.

Compare the amount recalled after 8 hours awake to the amount recalled after 8 hours asleep.

Your choices:

(A) Recall will be higher after being asleep.

(B) Recall will be higher after being awake.

(C) Asleep = awake.

Decay Theory predicts: ?

Interference Theory predicts: ?


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Predictions

Decay Theory predicts: C

Interference Theory predicts: A


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Results Supported the Interference Theory

Asleep

Syllables Recalled (out of 10)

0 5 10

Awake

0 2 4 6 8

Retention Interval


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