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Overview of Memory. Atkinson-Shiffrin Model. RETRIEVAL. ATTENTION. Sensory Memory. Short-Term Memory. Long-Term Memory. Sensory Signals. REHEARSAL. “Types” of Memory. Sensory Memory brief ( < 1 second) preattentive / parallel processing (very large capacity). Sensory Memory. Capacity.

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Presentation Transcript
overview of memory
Overview of Memory
  • Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

RETRIEVAL

ATTENTION

Sensory Memory

Short-Term Memory

Long-Term Memory

Sensory Signals

REHEARSAL

types of memory
“Types” of Memory
  • Sensory Memory
    • brief ( < 1 second)
    • preattentive / parallel processing (very large capacity)
capacity
Capacity
  • Describe a simple experiment that could measure the capacity of “memory”
capacity1
Capacity
  • Describe a simple experiment that could measure the capacity of “memory”
  • Briefly present some letters or digits and then ask the subject to report them
    • Called “whole report”
capacity2
Capacity

F S F E

G S A U

T O C G

capacity3
Capacity

“Recall as many letters as you can”

capacity4
Capacity
  • George Sperling - Systematic investigation of memory capacity
    • Result: subjects accurately recall 3 or 4 items
    • What can you conclude from this result?
capacity5
Capacity
  • What if subjects forget as they are recalling?
capacity6
Capacity
  • What if subjects forget as they are recalling?
  • How could you modify the experiment to measure the instantaneous capacity, before any forgetting can occur?
capacity7
Capacity
  • Partial Report - briefly present letters or digits and ask subject to report only some of them

“Report the letters in the row indicated by the arrow”

capacity8
Capacity

U E S B

O D W A

I B V S

capacity10
Capacity

Which Letters?

capacity11
Capacity
  • Partial Report
  • Result: subjects can recall any 3 or 4 letters that are indicated by the arrow !
capacity12
Capacity
  • Partial Report
  • Result: subjects can recall any 3 or 4 letters that are indicated by the arrow !
  • What does this mean about the capacity of memory?
capacity13
Capacity
  • There is some part of the perception system that stores huge amounts of information…
duration
Duration
  • But for how long? How would you design an experiment to measure the duration of this high-capacity memory system?
duration1
Duration
  • But for how long? How would you design an experiment to measure the duration of this high-capacity memory system?
  • Vary the onset of the probe
duration2
Duration
  • Partial Report

10

# of letters

potentially recalled

4

0

0 ms

500 ms

never

Probe Delay

duration3
Duration
  • Partial Report

10

# of letters potentially

recalled

4

0

0 ms

500 ms

never

Delay

Interpretation:

Information dwells in a brief storage “buffer”

duration of storage lasts about 1/2 of one second

iconic memory
Iconic Memory
  • a brief storage of “raw data” in the visual system
echoic memory
Echoic Memory
  • Auditory information is stored in a similar sensory “buffer”
    • Echoic memory seems to last for several seconds
properties of sensory memory
Properties of Sensory Memory
  • Brief (iconic ~500ms; echoic ~2 seconds)
properties of sensory memory1
Properties of Sensory Memory
  • Brief (iconic ~500ms; echoic ~2 seconds)
  • unlimited capacity
properties of sensory memory2
Properties of Sensory Memory
  • Brief (iconic ~500ms; echoic ~2 seconds)
  • unlimited capacity
  • pre-attentive
next time
Next Time:
  • Short-term memory
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