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Mali. Mande Tribal/Linguistic Groups. The Kora (Cora). Kora. Playing the Kora. Musicians in Mande Culture. Caste system Three levels - Nobles/ Rulers - Nyamalo (craftsmen who work w/ objects) - Sula (“ordinary” people) Musicians = Nyamalo (why?) Jalli/Jelli or “Griot” (French term).

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Musicians in Mande Culture

  • Caste system

  • Three levels- Nobles/ Rulers- Nyamalo (craftsmen who work w/ objects)- Sula (“ordinary” people)

  • Musicians = Nyamalo (why?)

  • Jalli/Jelli or “Griot” (French term)


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Kora (Cora) on YouTube

  • YouTube - Jali & The Kora

  • YouTube - Kora music from West African Griot

  • YouTube - Djele Lankandia - Kora Music

  • YouTube - Griot Lamin Saho - Peace, love and unity between the people.

  • YouTube - Kora music in the Gambia

  • YouTube - Kora meets Balafon - Two Mamadou Diabates

  • YouTube - Kora - Idrissa Cissoko


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Africa(political)




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Gangkogui (timeline)


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Axatse (timeline)


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Atsimevu(leader)


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Sogo, Kidi, Kaganu(left to right)


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Anlo-Ewe Drum Ensemble

  • Gangokui (clapperless double bell) -TIMELINE

  • Axatse (rattle – external beads on fishnet) - TIME

  • Atsimevu (largest drum, often on stand) - LEAD

  • Kaganu (medium small, semi-independent)

  • Sogo (small, 2-1/2 ft closed, hand, follower)

  • Kidi (small, 2 ft closed, sticks, follower)

  • See dancedrummer.com for examples

  • Also see Virtual Instrument Museum (Region: Africa)for individual instruments


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African Drumming on YouTube

  • YouTube - Akrowa Dance Ensemble, Drumming in Kokrobite Ghana

  • YouTube - traditional Ewe drumming and singing

  • YouTube - Ayan Bisi Adeleke - Master talking drummer - drum talks

  • YouTube - Yoruba Bata Ensemble Drums for Orisa, volume 1


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Popular Music in Africa(mainly Nigeria)


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Yaw Ofori Singing Band(recorded by Union Trading Company [UTC] in 1940s?)


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Ramblers Dance Band(“Highlife”, c. 1950s?)



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Rhythm Aces performing at “Weekend in Havana”(Club in James Town, Ghana, c. 1950-60)


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King Sunny Adé (b. 1946)“Minister of Enjoyment”

“Golden Mercury of Africa”



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Jújú

  • Yoruba-based music (tribe of SW Nigeria)

  • Emerges in 1930s w/ trios - a leader who sang and played the banjo- a shekere bottle-gourd rattle player- a jùjú (tambourine) drummer

  • 1948 – addition of Yoruba talking drum

  • King Sunny’s Band (large lineup, up to 16+)5-8 guitars, 2+ Talking drums, synthesizer(s), pedal steel guitar, miscellaneous percussion, 4 or more backup singers

  • “Jújú Music” (Island Records, 1982) -200,000 copies sold [replacement for Bob Marley]


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Highlife, JuJu, Afrobeat(Nigerian Pop)

  • YouTube - Taxi Driver - A Highlife Classic

  • YouTube - Classic Highlife

  • YouTube - West African Highlife Band & Nigerian Brothers drum & chants

  • YouTube - JUJU MUSIC - Performance Documentary Trailer

  • YouTube - Dele Abiodun- Juju music -Nigeria Yoruba

  • YouTube - Juju Tempo Tola Osumare

  • YouTube - I.K. Dairo - Salome (Audio)

  • YouTube - I.K. Dairo MBE

  • YouTube - King Sunny Ade ([email protected])

  • YouTube - KING SUNNY ADE - JA FUNMI

  • YouTube - King Sunny Ade - Sunny Ti de Ariya (Audio)

  • YouTube - king sunny ade (AUDIO)



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Fela’s life

  • Middle-Class Nigerian family- Mother – Feminist & Anti-colonialist- Father – Minister & Teacher (Union Pres.)

  • London (1958) to study medicine, then music

  • Koola Lobitos (mixes jazz, funk, highlife)

  • Nigeria (1963-69) radio producer

  • United States (1969) – influenced by Black Power movement

  • Bands: Nigeria ’70, Africa ‘70


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Fela Kuti at “Kalakuta Republic”

  • Founded 1970

  • Commune, recording studio, home for band

  • Declares “independence” from Nigeria

  • 1974 Raid “Expensive Sh—”

  • 1977 Attack (“Zombie”) – compound destroyed, Fela beaten, Mother killed


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Fela’s life

  • 1978 – marries 27 women (dancers in band)

  • Accra concert in Ghana (riots after “Zombie”)

  • 1979 – runs for president of Nigeria (“Movement of the People” Party)

  • Band: Egypt ‘80

  • 1980s – tours (US, Europe, etc.)

  • 1984 – jailed (currency smuggling)

  • 1997 – dies of complications of AIDS


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Fela’s Music

  • Afro Beat (his term) – jazz, funk, highlife

  • Large horn line, African percussion, etc.

  • Long (10-minute songs) static dance grooves- ostinato patterns- call & response- improvisation

  • Political lyrics (pan-Africanism)

  • Sings in Pidgin English (why?)


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Fela on YouTube

  • YouTube - Lady/Water No Get Enemy by. Fela Kuti

  • YouTube - Zombie - The Fela Kuti Tribute Concert 2003 (performed by Fela’s son)

  • YouTube - Fela Kuti "Gentleman“

  • Compare James Brown (“Hardest Working Man in Show Business”) (1970s: “Funk”)- YouTube - James Brown - Sex Machine (1976)- YouTube - james brown,say it loud i'm black and i'm proud


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