Exploring the ecological and economic role of pacific sardine
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Exploring the ecological and economic role of Pacific sardine. Andr és M. Cisneros-Montemayor and U. Rashid Sumaila. Trinational Sardine Forum. La Jolla, December 8, 2011. Outline. Fisheries in the California Current Ecosystem modeling of the BC Shelf Sardine as a forage fish

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Exploring the ecological and economic role of pacific sardine

Exploring the ecological and economic role of Pacific sardine

Andrés M. Cisneros-Montemayor andU. Rashid Sumaila

Trinational Sardine Forum. La Jolla, December 8, 2011


Outline

Outline

  • Fisheries in the California Current

  • Ecosystem modeling of the BC Shelf

  • Sardine as a forage fish

  • Contribution of sardine to ecosystem output

  • Summary

  • Next steps and challenges


Fisheries in the california current

Fisheries in the California Current

What is the contribution of sardines as forage fish in this system?

Economic impact of California Current fisheries by country (USD 2011). Landed values are from government statistics (CONAPESCA 2007; DFO 2008; NOAA 2008); economic impact and income effects calculated based on input-output multipliers for fisheries reported in Dyck and Sumaila (2010).


Ecosystem modeling bc shelf

Ecosystem modeling: BC Shelf


Ecosystem model bc

Ecosystem model: BC

  • 33 functional groups (12 with time-series data);

  • 10 fishing fleets;

  • Ecosystem driven by Aleutian Low Pressure Index.


Ecopath

Ecopath


Ecosim

Ecosim

Ecosim

Relative biomass

Catch

(thousands of tons)


Sardines as forage fish

Sardines as forage fish

  • Sardine is directly linked (predator/prey) to 19 functional groups;

  • Highest average proportion in predator biomass among fish after herring;

  • Trophic interactions are confounded with environmental change;

  • Model allows us to hold the environment constant;

  • Diet matrix and landed values can be used to calculate contribution of sardine to landed values.


Contribution to fisheries value

Contribution to fisheries value

Based on Ecopath diet matrix and BC landed value

Pacific Sardine

Scombrids

$658 K

Rockfishes

$1.9 M

Sharks

$20 K

Cod-likes

$339 K

Salmonids

$1.5 M

Total

$4,900,000

Flatfishes

$355 K


Contribution to ecosystem output

Contribution to ecosystem output

  • Dynamic model: contribution of sardine to species-specific biomass and economic value.


Contribution to ecosystem output1

Contribution to ecosystem output


Contribution to ecosystem output2

Contribution to ecosystem output


Contribution to ecosystem output3

Contribution to ecosystem output

  • Total ecosystem fisheries value is currently ~9.2 B USD;

  • Including ecosystem effects, the fisheries value of an additional thousand tons of sardine is ~80 K USD.


Summary

Summary

  • Ecosystem model is providing interesting results, and is closer to adequately representing observed data;

  • Sardines contribute significantly to the ecosystem both in terms of production and subsequent fishing value;

  • Ecosystem models are not a substitute for stock assessments, but can be used as a testing ground for hypotheses, new methodologies and interdisciplinary research.


Next steps

Next steps

  • Test more hypotheses for environmental drivers and ecosystem shifts;

  • Explore mechanisms for sardine population response to environment;

  • Validate results with observed fisheries data;

  • Expand model to rest of California Current.


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

  • J. Schweigert, S. McFarlane, L. Flostrand, J. Detering, J. Lenic, E. Cotero, M. Nevárez and S. Herzka;

  • V. Christensen, C. Walters, S. Martell (Committee).

  • [email protected]

  • [email protected]

  • [email protected]


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