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Surveys, Interviews, and Tests. Explicit Reports. Major Types of Explicit Report Instruments. Surveys, questionnaires Interviews Sociometric ratings Activity dairies, logs Contingent valuation Focus groups Protocol analysis Tests.

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Explicit Reports

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Surveys interviews and tests

Surveys, Interviews, and Tests

Explicit Reports

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Major types of explicit report instruments

Major Types of Explicit Report Instruments

  • Surveys, questionnaires

  • Interviews

  • Sociometric ratings

  • Activity dairies, logs

  • Contingent valuation

  • Focus groups

  • Protocol analysis

  • Tests

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Format of explicit reports

All types of explicit reports ask people to respond to questions, statements, pictures, or other stimuli.

Format of Explicit Reports

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Item format

Item Format

  • Close-ended items

    • Provide specific response options

    • Fixed response format

    • Provide exhaustive alternatives and mutually exclusive alternatives so the respondent can only pick one

  • Open-ended items

    • Allows for unstructured or free response format

    • Unanticipated responses

    • Are records not data

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Major types of close ended items

Major Types of Close-ended Items

  • Rating Scales

  • Forced-Choice Alternatives

  • Ranking of Alternatives

  • Adjective or Activity Check List

  • Paired or Triadic Comparisons

  • Sorting Tasks

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Explicit reports

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Items

Items…

Standardized Items

  • Predetermined & consistent format to all respondents

Nonstandardized Items

  • Not consistent across all respondents

  • Examples

    • Follow-up questions

      • Branching format

      • Free-format

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Things to consider when administering explicit reports

Things to consider when administering explicit reports

  • Cost

  • Number and Nature of items

  • Response rate

  • Potential for follow-up

  • Nature of respondents

  • Possible interview artifacts

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Using the internet

Using the Internet

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Designing and generating explicit instruments

Designing and Generating Explicit Instruments

  • How do we get ideas for items?

  • Things to consider:

    • Unidimensional

    • No unnecessary questions

    • Order Effects

    • Context Effects

    • Counterbalancing

  • “GPM…PMT” “generate, pretest, modify…pretest, modify, test.”

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Designing your explicit instrument

Are you using an explicit instrument?

What considerations will you be taking into account as you design your instrument and items?

Designing your explicit instrument

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


The census

“Who is counted?”

“Who is not counted that should be?”

“Who may have been counted more than once?”

An important secondary source of explicit report data for geographers

The Census

http://www.census.gov

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Explicit reports

Entire United States

Regions

Divisions

Metropolitan Areas

States

Urban Areas

Urban Clusters

Counties

Census Tracts

Block Groups

Census Blocks

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Limitations

How are the quality and usefulness of explicit-report data compromised by the following issues: memory, truthfulness, open disclosure, the linguistic encoding of meaning, access to cognitive processes and the mind-behavior relationship?

Limitations…

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


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