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Surveys, Interviews, and Tests. Explicit Reports. Major Types of Explicit Report Instruments. Surveys, questionnaires Interviews Sociometric ratings Activity dairies, logs Contingent valuation Focus groups Protocol analysis Tests.

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Surveys interviews and tests

Surveys, Interviews, and Tests

Explicit Reports

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Major types of explicit report instruments
Major Types of Explicit Report Instruments

  • Surveys, questionnaires

  • Interviews

  • Sociometric ratings

  • Activity dairies, logs

  • Contingent valuation

  • Focus groups

  • Protocol analysis

  • Tests

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Format of explicit reports

All types of explicit reports ask people to respond to questions, statements, pictures, or other stimuli.

Format of Explicit Reports

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Item format
Item Format questions, statements, pictures, or other stimuli.

  • Close-ended items

    • Provide specific response options

    • Fixed response format

    • Provide exhaustive alternatives and mutually exclusive alternatives so the respondent can only pick one

  • Open-ended items

    • Allows for unstructured or free response format

    • Unanticipated responses

    • Are records not data

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Major types of close ended items
Major Types of Close-ended Items questions, statements, pictures, or other stimuli.

  • Rating Scales

  • Forced-Choice Alternatives

  • Ranking of Alternatives

  • Adjective or Activity Check List

  • Paired or Triadic Comparisons

  • Sorting Tasks

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Items
Items… Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Standardized Items

  • Predetermined & consistent format to all respondents

Nonstandardized Items

  • Not consistent across all respondents

  • Examples

    • Follow-up questions

      • Branching format

      • Free-format

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Things to consider when administering explicit reports
Things to consider when administering explicit reports Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

  • Cost

  • Number and Nature of items

  • Response rate

  • Potential for follow-up

  • Nature of respondents

  • Possible interview artifacts

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Using the internet
Using the Internet Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Designing and generating explicit instruments
Designing and Generating Explicit Instruments Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

  • How do we get ideas for items?

  • Things to consider:

    • Unidimensional

    • No unnecessary questions

    • Order Effects

    • Context Effects

    • Counterbalancing

  • “GPM…PMT” “generate, pretest, modify…pretest, modify, test.”

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Designing your explicit instrument

Are you using an explicit instrument? Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

What considerations will you be taking into account as you design your instrument and items?

Designing your explicit instrument

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


The census

“Who is counted?” Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

“Who is not counted that should be?”

“Who may have been counted more than once?”

An important secondary source of explicit report data for geographers

The Census

http://www.census.gov

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Entire United States Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Regions

Divisions

Metropolitan Areas

States

Urban Areas

Urban Clusters

Counties

Census Tracts

Block Groups

Census Blocks

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Limitations

How are the quality and usefulness of explicit-report data compromised by the following issues: memory, truthfulness, open disclosure, the linguistic encoding of meaning, access to cognitive processes and the mind-behavior relationship?

Limitations…

Montello, D. R. & P. C. Sutton. 2006. An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


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