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Prompting. Chapter 17 (Cooper, et. al) Chapter 4 (MacDuff, et. al) (Demchek, 1990). Prompting and Prompt Fading. Prompts: supplemental stimuli that control the target response but are not a part of the natural SD that will eventually control the behavior (Touchette & Howard, 1984)

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Prompting l.jpg

Prompting

Chapter 17(Cooper, et. al)Chapter 4

(MacDuff, et. al)

(Demchek, 1990)


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Prompting and Prompt Fading

  • Prompts:

    • supplemental stimuli that control the target response but are not a part of the natural SD that will eventually control the behavior

  • (Touchette & Howard, 1984)

    • Prompts are given before or during the performance of a behavior

    • they help behavior occur so that the teacher can provide reinforcement

    • Only introduced during the acquisition phase of instruction


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Prompting and Prompt Fading

  • Transfer of Stimulus Control

    • technique used to fade response and stimulus prompts

    • Prompts should be used only during acquisition

    • Transfer stimulus control from prompt to naturally-existing stimuli quickly using fading


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2 Types of Prompts

  • Response Prompts: stimuli added to a child’s response

    • Verbal Directions

    • Modeling

    • Physical Guidance

      • How else can we say this?

  • Stimulus Prompts: Stimuli used in conjunction with the task stimuli or instructional materials

    • Movement Cues

    • Position Cues

    • Redundance


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Response prompts: stimuli added to a child’s response

  • Verbal directions:

    • can be one word or several in length and are used very often in typical classrooms

    • vocal or written

    • e.g., When teaching a child to tie a shoe –can say remember to make the bows big

    • e.g., remind the student what they need to do –Remember do your math worksheet and then we can go to the party


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Response prompts: stimuli added to a child’s response

  • Verbal directions:

    • Can be used with children with autism but…..

      • Child must have responding that is rule-governed or use familiar language

      • Make sure they are not prompts but critical variables of concern

        • E.g., instructions –can be taught to respond to these often paired with modeling


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Response prompts: stimuli added to a child’s response

  • Modeling prompts

    • a behavior can be modeled by demonstrating the desired behavior so that it can be imitated. It can be used in combination with other prompts

    • Child must have generalized imitation

  • e.g., words on a card to be copied – writing activity schedules

  • e.g., videotaping the actions of a play script

  • e.g., drawing the components for an art script

  • e.g., posture and attention


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Response prompts: stimuli added to a child’s response

  • Manual guidance:

    • an instructor manually guides a child through the entire target response

    • e.g., teaching a child to dress –not pulling the pants up for a child but putting your hands over the child’s and guiding them pull them up


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Response Prompt Fading(Transferring from Response Prompts to natural cues)

  • Most-to-Least Prompts

  • Graduated Guidance

    • Shadowing and spatial fading

  • Least-to-Most Prompts

  • Time Delay


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Response Prompt Fading(Transferring from Response Prompts to natural cues)

  • Most-to-least :

    • the instructor initially guides the student manually through the entire performance then gradually reduces the amount of manual assistance provided as training progresses from session to session.

      • e.g., dressing

    • Gradually reduce amount of manual assistance

      • Modeling

      • Verbal instruction

      • Natural stimulus

    • When is this hierarchy appropriate?


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Response Prompt Fading(Transferring from Response Prompts to natural cues)

  • Graduated guidance

    • is defined as the teacher provides a manual prompt only when it is needed and then it is faded immediately whenever the student responses correctly.

    • Foxx and Azrin (1973) recommend using shadowing and spatial fading with the graduated guidance procedure as soon as the student is performing the skill independently.


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Response Prompt Fading(Transferring from Response Prompts to natural cues)

  • Graduated guidance

    • Shadowing

      • has the teacher following the student’s movements with her hands very near but not touching the child. The teacher then gradually increases the distance of her hands from the student.

    • Spatial fading

      • involves gradually changing the location of the manual prompt.

      • e.g., if the manual prompt is used for a hand movement, the teacher can move the prompt from the hand to the wrist, to the elbow, to the shoulder, and then to no manual contact.


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Response Prompt Fading(Transferring from Response Prompts to natural cues)

  • Least to most prompts

    • Provide participant with an opportunity to perform the response with the least amount of assistance on each trial

    • Participant receives greater degrees of assistance with each successive trial without a correct response

    • Advantages

      • the student always has an opportunity to response and the student’s behavior determines the level of prompting needed for a correct response increasing assistance as necessary.

    • Disadvantages

      • multiple errors


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Example

  • “Joe point to the number 8 “

    • no response

  • “Joe point to the number 8. It’s the one between 7 and 9 on your number line.”

    • No response

  • “Joe watch me point to the number 8 on your paper. Now you point to the number 8.”

    • He points to the 9

  • “Joe point to the number 8. The tutor placed his hand on top of Joe’s and moves his hand close to the number 8”

    • He points to 9

  • “Joe, point to the number 8. The tutor guides Joe’s fingers to the number 8”


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Response Prompt Fading

  • Time delay

    • Varying the time interval between presentation of a natural stimulus and the presentation of a response prompt

      • Constant time delay

        • Begin with a 0-sec delay

        • Then use a fixed delay (e.g., 3 sec)

      • Progressive time delay

        • Begin with a 0-sec delay

        • Gradually and systematically increase delay (e.g., in 1-sec intervals) according to some rule


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Recommendations when using response prompt fading methods (Demchek, 1990)

  • Important to consider instructional time to criterion, trial to criterion and errors to criterion.

  • Procedures that lead to less instructional time or fewer trial should be used


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Recommendations when using response prompt fading methods (Demchek, 1990)

  • Procedures that result in fewer errors should also be considered

    • Once an error is made it tends to be repeated

    • Errors involve time and further decrease instructional time

    • Some individuals display non-productive responses when engaged in difficult tasks

    • Should errorless learning be the fading strategy of choice for all students?


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Recommendations when using response prompt fading methods (Demchek, 1990)

  • If the focus of instruction is acquisition, the more efficient prompt fading method is most to least in terms of errors to criterion


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Recommendations when using response prompt fading methods (Demchek, 1990)

  • If instruction is focusing on fluency, least to most is more efficient

  • If teaching discrete responses time delay appears to be more efficient than least to most

  • If teaching chained response, constant time delay is more efficient than least to most.

  • Constant time delay may be easier to use than progressive time delay and result in higher procedural reliability when teaching discrete responses


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Stimulus prompts: stimuli added to an SD prior to a child emitting a response.

  • Movement prompts

    • pointing to or looking at the target stimulus.

    • e.g. when teaching a student to discriminate a penny from a dime you might point to correct coin.

  • Positional prompts

    • moving the target stimulus closer to a child.

    • e.g., if asking for a dime –move it closer


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Stimulus prompts: stimuli added to an SD prior to a child emitting a response.

  • Redundance

    • when additional dimensions (e.g., color, size shape) of the target stimulus are exaggerated

    • e.g. prompt is exaggerating the lettering on a dime –criterion related

    • e.g., placing the correct coin on a white sheet of paper –non-criterion related


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Stimulus Prompt Fading(Transferring from Stimulus Prompts to natural cues)

  • Stimulus prompts are faded through errorless learning procedures such as:

    • Stimulus shaping

    • Transposition

    • Stimulus fading

      • (LaBlanc & Etzel, 1981)


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Stimulus Prompt Fading(Transferring from Stimulus Prompts to natural cues)

  • -Stimulus fading:

    • highlighting a manual dimension (e.g., color, size, position) of a stimulus to increase the likelihood of a correct response.

    • The highlighted or exaggerated dimension is faded gradually in or out.

    • e.g., fully highlighting a letter “A” to teach handwriting –criterion related prompt

    • e.g., 17 and 71 –in puzzles –give them a one and have them place the one in the correct position to make 17 or 71 –eventually fade this to a writing task

  • –criterion related prompts ensure that the child is attending to the relevant dimension of the stimulus.


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Stimulus Prompt Fading(Transferring from Stimulus Prompts to natural cues)

  • Superimposition of stimuli is

    • Frequently used with stimulus fading.

    • Two specific classes of stimuli are presented to prompt a response.

    • In one instance the transfer of stimulus control occurs when one stimulus is faded out; in another application one stimulus is faded in as the other stimulus is faded out.


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Stimulus Prompt Fading(Transferring from Stimulus Prompts to natural cues)

  • Examples of Superimposition of stimuli

  • e.g. Terrace (1963):

    • colored lights (red & green)

    • Lines superimposed on lights

    • Lights faded out

  • e.g., 5 + 2 = 7

    1-2-3-4-5- 6-7

  • E.g., Pg 406 & 407–criterion related?


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Stimulus Prompt Fading(Transferring from Stimulus Prompts to natural cues)

  • Stimulus shape transformations

    • Use an initial stimulus shape that will prompt a correct response

    • This shape is gradually changed to form the natural stimulus, while maintaining correct responding

    • e.g., picture of a car –gradually changing to the written word car –criterion related


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Another Way to Look at Things…….MacDuff, 2001

  • Classification of prompts are not really necessary…..in reality we use them as packages

  • Although Stimulus and Response prompt classification can be useful


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Additional promptsStimulus or Response Prompts?

  • Gestural prompts

  • Photographs and line drawings

  • Textual prompts

  • Tactile

  • Tones/alarms


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Prompt-fading systems:Ways to fade Stimulus or Response Prompts?

  • Most-to Least

  • Least-to Most

  • Time Delay

  • Graduated Guidance

  • Stimulus Fading

  • Stimulus Shaping


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Questions to answer when selecting a prompt

  • What is the target response?

  • Does my prompt lead to the target response?

  • What is the natural stimuli that should control this behavior?


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Questions to answer when selecting a prompt

  • Does my prompt lead to that stimuli controlling the behavior?

    • Order your SDs in a hierarchy from the most natural to the most artificial and select from there

      • E.g. eye contact –why you wouldn’t say “look” or “hands down”

      • E.g., teaching a student to discriminate “b” and “d”

        • Extra stimulus prompt-non-criterion related prompts

        • Within-stimulus prompts –criterion related prompts –magnified critical features


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Information to remember when fading prompts:

  • Am I producing a shift in attention from my prompt to the relevant discriminative stimuli?

  • Am I decreasing the likelihood of prompt dependency while preventing errors?

    • -e.g., fading prompts in a timely fashion

  • Am I using an error-correction procedure if the child makes a mistake?

  • Am I reinforcing only when I reduce my level of prompt - giving the child an incentive to independently perform the response?


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Coping with stimulus overdependence and overselectivity

  • Children with autism’s behavior may be controlled by a limited number of even just one –often non-relevant stimulus -of the complex stimulus

    • E.g., placement of an object, its color, person doing the teaching

    • Can recall someone’s name when they are sitting in their seat in the classroom –pass them on the street and I’m in trouble

    • How do you fix this?


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Correcting Overselectivity

  • Control has to be transferred over to the critical features of the SD

  • Alternate trials involving single components of the complex stimulus with trials containing the intact complex stimulus


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Stimulus Control Research focusing on Techniques that are Designed to Fade Adult Prompts very Rapidly (Green, 2001)

  • Activity Schedules

    • (MacDuff, Krantz &McClannahan, 1993)

    • Independent/ skills; leisure skills

  • Script/script fading procedures

    • (Krantz & McClannahan, 1998) (Stevenson, Krantz & McClannahn, 2000)

    • Textual or audio prompts

    • Words embedded in an activity schedule

    • Initiate and respond to verbal statements

  • Tactile Prompts

    • (Taylor & Levin, 1998)

    • Verbal initiations


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Stimulus Control Research focusing on Techniques that are Designed to Fade Adult Prompts very Rapidly (Green, 2001)

  • Video Modeling

    • (Charlop & Milstein, 1989) (Reeve, et al., 2007)

    • Purchasing skills, helping skills

    • Lots of additonal research questions

  • Priming

    • (Schreibman, Whalen & Stahmer, 2000)

    • Decreasing disruptive behavior

    • Lots of additional research questions

  • Incidental Teaching or “Naturalistic Techniques” & Natural Language Paradgm

    • (Hart & Risley, 1968) & (Koegel, 1995)

    • Verbal initiations


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