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Chapter 9 - Taxonomy. Taxonomy – the science of classifying organisms – has two purposes:. To identify the organism To represent relationships among them. History of Taxonomy:.

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Taxonomy the science of classifying organisms has two purposes
Taxonomy – the science of classifying organisms – has two purposes:

  • To identify the organism

  • To represent relationships among them


History of taxonomy
History of Taxonomy:

  • Aristotle – believed in the “ladder of nature” – sponges were at the bottom and humans were at the top – he classified things as either plants or animals ( see fig.1 pg.326)


9 1 taxonomic systems
9.1 Taxonomic Systems

  • Carl Linnaeus- 18th century – he classified organisms based on structure

  • The more features organisms have in common, the closer their relationship


He introduced binomial nomenclature: a 2 name system for naming organism using Latin or Greek ( Latin is a dead language)

  • Ex. Castor Canadensis – beaver

  • Genus species - the Genus name is always a capital letter


The 2 names indicate similarities in anatomy embryology evolution ancestry
The 2 names indicate similarities in anatomy, embryology & evolution ancestry

  • Ex. – Ursus americanus

  • Ursus horribilis

  • koala bear Genus: PhascolarctosSpecies: cinereus

  • Panda bear Genus Ailuropoda


Modern taxonomy
Modern Taxonomy evolution ancestry

  • Today we use these major categories and evidence to support classification:

  • Fossil records – they provide clues, but are rarely complete

  • Anatomy – a) homologous structures – similar in structure but may have different functions

  • b) vestigial structures – structures that once had a purpose but no longer serve a function

  • Comparative embryology – ex. – all vertebrates have a stage as an embryo where they look alike

  • Comparative biochemistry – comparing DNA, genes and proteins


Fossil records
Fossil Records evolution ancestry


Homologous structures
Homologous Structures evolution ancestry


Vestigial structures
Vestigial Structures evolution ancestry


Comparative embryology
Comparative Embryology evolution ancestry


Comparative biochemistry
Comparative Biochemistry evolution ancestry


Levels of classification organisms are classified based on 7 taxa levels
Levels of Classification evolution ancestry Organisms are classified based on 7 taxa (levels)

  • King Phyl Came Over For Good Spaghetti

  • Kingdom

  • Phylum

  • Class

  • Order

  • Family

  • Genus

  • Species



Now it is believed that monera should be 2 separate kingdoms eubacteria
Now it is believed that evolution ancestry Monera should be 2 separate kingdoms: Eubacteria


And archaebacteria
And Archaebacteria evolution ancestry


Phylogeny – the history of the evolution of organisms – often shown in a diagram called a phylogenetic tree – see pg.329


A three domain system of classification
A three Domain system of Classification often shown in a diagram called a


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