Chapter 9 taxonomy
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Chapter 9 - Taxonomy. Taxonomy – the science of classifying organisms – has two purposes:. To identify the organism To represent relationships among them. History of Taxonomy:.

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Chapter 9 - Taxonomy

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Chapter 9 taxonomy

Chapter 9 - Taxonomy


Taxonomy the science of classifying organisms has two purposes

Taxonomy – the science of classifying organisms – has two purposes:

  • To identify the organism

  • To represent relationships among them


History of taxonomy

History of Taxonomy:

  • Aristotle – believed in the “ladder of nature” – sponges were at the bottom and humans were at the top – he classified things as either plants or animals ( see fig.1 pg.326)


9 1 taxonomic systems

9.1 Taxonomic Systems

  • Carl Linnaeus- 18th century – he classified organisms based on structure

  • The more features organisms have in common, the closer their relationship


Chapter 9 taxonomy

He introduced binomial nomenclature: a 2 name system for naming organism using Latin or Greek ( Latin is a dead language)

  • Ex. Castor Canadensis – beaver

  • Genus species - the Genus name is always a capital letter


The 2 names indicate similarities in anatomy embryology evolution ancestry

The 2 names indicate similarities in anatomy, embryology & evolution ancestry

  • Ex. – Ursus americanus

  • Ursus horribilis

  • koala bear Genus: PhascolarctosSpecies: cinereus

  • Panda bear Genus Ailuropoda


Modern taxonomy

Modern Taxonomy

  • Today we use these major categories and evidence to support classification:

  • Fossil records – they provide clues, but are rarely complete

  • Anatomy – a) homologous structures – similar in structure but may have different functions

  • b) vestigial structures – structures that once had a purpose but no longer serve a function

  • Comparative embryology – ex. – all vertebrates have a stage as an embryo where they look alike

  • Comparative biochemistry – comparing DNA, genes and proteins


Fossil records

Fossil Records


Homologous structures

Homologous Structures


Vestigial structures

Vestigial Structures


Comparative embryology

Comparative Embryology


Comparative biochemistry

Comparative Biochemistry


Levels of classification organisms are classified based on 7 taxa levels

Levels of ClassificationOrganisms are classified based on 7 taxa (levels)

  • King Phyl Came Over For Good Spaghetti

  • Kingdom

  • Phylum

  • Class

  • Order

  • Family

  • Genus

  • Species


Until recently organisms were grouped into 5 kingdoms

Until recently organisms were grouped into 5 kingdoms:


Now it is believed that monera should be 2 separate kingdoms eubacteria

Now it is believed that Monera should be 2 separate kingdoms: Eubacteria


And archaebacteria

And Archaebacteria


Chapter 9 taxonomy

Phylogeny – the history of the evolution of organisms – often shown in a diagram called a phylogenetic tree – see pg.329


A three domain system of classification

A three Domain system of Classification


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