Welsh english code switching a clause based analysis
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Welsh-English code-switching: a clause-based analysis. Margaret Deuchar, Dirk Bury, Elen Robert, Peredur Davies & Jonathan Stammers. Goals of this talk. To argue that the notion “bilingual clause” is potentially problematic To demonstrate this with reference to complex clauses

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Welsh-English code-switching: a clause-based analysis

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Welsh english code switching a clause based analysis

Welsh-English code-switching: a clause-based analysis

Margaret Deuchar, Dirk Bury, Elen Robert, Peredur Davies & Jonathan Stammers


Goals of this talk

Goals of this talk

  • To argue that the notion “bilingual clause” is potentially problematic

  • To demonstrate this with reference to complex clauses

  • To propose an analysis using “clausal units” - which are not necessarily constituents

  • To report on the results of assigning (a) linguality and (b) a matrix language using clausal units in an analysis of our Welsh-English code-switching data


What is a bilingual clause

What is a bilingual clause?

  • A clause that contains words from more than one language

    Example:

    [CPmaeoonstand-by ]

    isheonstand-by

    He’s on stand-by.


Complex clauses

Complex clauses

  • A complex clause is a clause or CP that contains a clause:

    [CP1a b c [CP2 d e f] ]

    Within CP1 (a complex clause), we can distinguish:

    - [CP2 d e f] : the subordinate clause

    - a b c : the “residue” of CP1


Monolingual c omplex clause

Monolingual complex clause

Example:

[CP1sownesiddeud[CP2 (ba)swnI

sodidIsaywouldI

mynddyddSul] ]

godaySunday

[CP1So I said [CP2I’d go on Sunday] ]


4 patterns of complex bilingual clauses

4 patterns of complex bilingual clauses

1. [CP1L1L2[CP2 L1L2] ]

2. [CP1 L1 L2[CP2L1]]

3. [CP1 L1 [CP2L2] ]

4. [CP1 L1 [CP2 L1L2] ]


Pattern 1 cp1 l1 l2 cp2 l1 l2

Pattern 1: [CP1 L1 L2 [CP2 L1 L2 ] ]

Example:

[CP1ondmaeomorcheesy

butisitsocheesy

[CP2mae(y)nfunny]yndy ]

isPRTfunnyTAG

But it’s so cheesy it’s funny, isn’t it.


Pattern 2 cp1 l1 l2 cp2 l1

Pattern 2: [CP1 L1 L2 [CP2 L1 ] ]

Example:

[CP1 hynna (y)dy’r exam[CP2 dwi’n thereisDETexamam-I PRT

gorod eistedd (y)fory] ]

have-to.NONFINsit.NONFINtomorrow

That’s the exam I have to sit tomorrow.


Pattern 3 cp1 l1 cp2 l2

Pattern 3: [CP1 L1 [CP2L2 ] ]

Example:

[CP1wnesiddeud[CP2ohd(o)you

didIsay ohdoyou

fancyapintonWednesday?] ]

fancyapintonWednesday

I said “Oh, do you fancy a pint on Wednesday?”


Pattern 4 cp1 l1 cp2 l1 l2

Pattern4: [CP1L1 [CP2 L1 L2 ] ]

[CP1maehijustynmeddwl[CP2bod

isshejustPRTthink be

(y)naquick-fixesibobdimyeah] ]

therequick-fixestoeverythingyeah

She just thinks there are quick-fixes for everything, yeah.


Why are complex bilingual clause s problematic

Why are complex bilingual clauses problematic?

Complex bilingual clauses create problems for:

  • counts of the proportion of bilingual clauses in a given corpus

  • identification of matrix language (as in Matrix Language Frame model) on a clause basis


Counting bilingual complex clauses

Counting bilingual complex clauses

Pattern 4:

[CP1maehijustynmeddwl[CP2bod

isshejustPRTthink be

(y)naquick-fixesibobdimyeah] ]

therequick-fixestoeverythingyeah

She just thinks there are quick-fixes for everything, yeah.

  • #4'[CPl L1 [CP2 L1 [CP3 L1 [CP4 L1L2 ] ] ] ]


Matrix language frame model

Matrix Language Frame model

  • Unit of analysis is CP: “syntactic structure expressing the predicate-argument structure of a clause” (Myers-Scotton 2002:54)

  • A bilingual CP is one that contains bilingual constituents (Myers-Scotton 2002:56), including other CPs

  • Hypothesis (Myers-Scotton 2002:66): “the Matrix Language does not change at all within the single bilingual CP”


Predictions of the mlf

Predictions of the MLF

Morpheme Order Principle

In bilingual constituents […], surface word (and morpheme) order will be that of the Matrix Language.

System Morpheme Principle

In bilingual constituents, all system morphemes which have grammatical relations external to their head constituents will come from the Matrix Language.

(Adapted from Myers-Scotton 2002:59)


Problem for hypothesis that ml doesn t change

Problem for hypothesis that ML doesn’t change

Pattern 3 examples contain word order patterns and agreement morphology from two languages:

[CP1wnesiddeud[CP2ohd(o)you

didIsayohdoyou

fancyapintonWednesday?] ]

fancyapintonWednesday

I said “oh, d’you fancy a pint on Wednesday?”


Solution the clausal unit

Solution: the clausal unit

The basic unit of analysis must include :

  • simple clauses

  • complex clauses that contain a subordinate clause but without the subordinate clause(‘clause residues’)

    We call the basic unit of analysisclausal unit.

    Note: Clause residues are not constituents.


Illustrative analysis applying mlf to welsh english data

Illustrative analysis applying MLF to Welsh-English data

  • Data from AHRC-funded project at Bangor (transcribed using LIDES system)

  • Sample of ca. 70 minutes analysed

  • Data from 3 conversations between 2 speakers

  • Total of 2429 clausal units analysed

  • Total of 1171 clausal units with finite verbs

  • Linguality and ML identified


Identifying linguality

Identifying linguality

  • Identify all clausal units (including both simple clauses and clause residues)

  • Code each clausal unit as monolingual (Welsh or English), bilingual or either

  • Calculate proportion of bilingual vs monolingual clausal units in sample


Identifying matrix language

Identifying matrix language

  • Identify all clausal units (including both simple clauses and clause residues)

  • Identify ML of each clausal unit on basis of subject-verb agreement & word order as Welsh, English, either or dichotomous

  • Calculate proportion of bilingual and monolingual clauses in which ML can be identified


Linguality all clausal units

Linguality: all clausal units


Linguality clausal units containing verbs

Linguality: clausal units containing verbs


Linguality clausal units containing finite verbs

Linguality: clausal units containing finite verbs


Ml of all clausal units

ML of all clausal units


Ml of clausal units containing verbs

ML of clausal units containing verbs


Ml of clausal units cus containing finite verbs

ML of clausal units (CUs) containing finite verbs


Summary of results on linguality and ml

Summary of results on linguality and ML

  • The vast majority of clausal units are Welsh

  • About 15% of clausal units are bilingual

  • Clausal units with language-specific linguality mostly have the same language-specific ML

  • Clausal units with bilingual linguality mostly have Welsh ML

  • Dichotomous ML is extremely rare

  • The model can be most exhaustively applied when the analysis is limited to clausal units with finite verbs


Discussion of results

Discussion of results

Results of analysis show that :

  • MLF model is generally descriptively adequate in relation to our data

  • There may be a relation between the ML which is most frequent in a dataset and that which is favoured in bilingual clauses


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Use of clausal units, including both simple clauses and clause residues, makes it possible to identify linguality and ML of clausal units on a more principled and precise basis.

  • Use of clausal units in analyses of linguality and ML provide quantitative information which leads to hypotheses which can be tested on other data using identical methods of analysis.


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

  • Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), UK

  • Marika Fusser

  • Ellen Kimpton

  • Research Councils UK (RCUK)

  • Gary Smith


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