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A Clause Is a Clause Is a Clause. A Group of Words That Always Contains a Subject and Verb in Combination Clauses may be Independent or Dependent . Independent Clauses can function as complete sentences, e.g., a simple sentence.

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a clause is a clause is a clause
A Clause Is a Clause Is a Clause
  • A Group of Words That Always Contains a Subject and Verb in Combination
  • Clauses may be Independent or Dependent.
  • Independent Clauses can function as complete sentences, e.g., a simple sentence.
  • Dependent Clauses must be “attached” to an Independent Clause, e.g., a complex sentence.
simple sentence one independent clause also called the main or principal clause
Simple Sentence=One Independent Clause(Also called the main or principal clause)

In the bedtime story, Jackkilled the goose.

Subject=Jack

Verb=killed

Sentence Pattern= ?

Pattern 3 because of the direct object goose.

compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses
Compound Sentence=Contains Two or More Independent Clauses

In the bedtime story, Jackkilled the goose, and his mothercooked it for supper.

Subject=Jack

Verb=killed

Subject=mother

Verb=cooked

punctuation for compound sentences
Punctuation for Compound Sentences
  • Because you have more than two independent clauses in the same sentence, you will need additional punctuation as well as conjunctions.
  • Commas will almost always precede coordinating conjunctions: but, or, yet, so, for and, nor. (BOYSFAN or FANBOYS)
  • You may elect to use a semicolon to join two independent clauses as well. Sometimes you will include a conjunctive adverb and a comma as well.
compound sentence with a coordinating conjunction and a comma
Compound Sentence with a Coordinating Conjunction and a comma
  • The Giants have won eight consecutive games, but their hopes of making the playoffs are dwindling.
  • Subjects: Giants and hopes
  • Verbs: have won and are dwindling.
  • Comma must precede but because two independent clauses are joined with a coordinating conjunction.
compound sentence with a semicolon and or conjunctive adverb
Compound Sentence with a Semicolon and/or Conjunctive Adverb
  • The Clemson Tigers destroyed the Auburn Tigers on Saturday; Auburn will not repeat as college football champions this season.
  • Subjects: Clemson Tigers and Auburn Tigers
  • Verbs: destroyed and will repeat
  • The semicolon joins two independent clauses.
  • ; therefore, (would also work in place of comma and coordinating conjunction)
conjunctive adverb fix
Conjunctive Adverb “Fix”
  • The Clemson Tigers destroyed the Auburn Tigers on Saturday; Auburn will not repeat as college football champions this season.
  • The Clemson Tigers destroyed the Auburn Tigers on Saturday; therefore, Auburn will not repeat as college football champions this season.
comma splices
Comma Splices
  • Never use a comma to splice together two independent clauses because you will create a comma splice or fault. This error reflects two serious grammar mistakes: one relating to punctuation and one relating to sentence structure.
fixing a comma splice is easy
Fixing a comma splice is easy.
  • President Obama proposed increasing taxes on rich Americans, many Republicans immediately called it “class warfare.”
  • President Obama proposed increasing taxes on rich Americans, and many Republicans immediately called it “class warfare.”
  • President Obama proposed increasing taxes on rich Americans; many Republicans immediately called it “class warfare.”
practice exercises
Practice Exercises
  • In each of the following sentences, a caret ˄ marks a point of coordination. If the sentence is Type 1, write O in the space at the left. If the sentence is Type 2, write C (for comma) in the space. If the sentence is Type 3, write S (for semicolon) in the space.
  • _____ Yesterday, the men finished the project ˄ therefore, they stayed home today.
practice exercises1
Practice Exercises
  • In each of the following sentences, a caret ˄ marks a point of coordination. If the sentence is Type 1, write O in the space at the left. If the sentence is Type 2, write C (for comma) in the space. If the sentence is Type 3, write S (for semicolon) in the space.
  • _____ The shortstop dove for the ball ˄ but was not able to field it cleanly.
practice exercises2
Practice Exercises
  • In each of the following sentences, a caret ˄ marks a point of coordination. If the sentence is Type 1, write O in the space at the left. If the sentence is Type 2, write C (for comma) in the space. If the sentence is Type 3, write S (for semicolon) in the space.
  • _____ Usually, Jim takes his vacation in August ˄ he’s never been to the mountains in October before.
practice exercises3
Practice Exercises
  • In each of the following sentences, a caret ˄ marks a point of coordination. If the sentence is Type 1, write O in the space at the left. If the sentence is Type 2, write C (for comma) in the space. If the sentence is Type 3, write S (for semicolon) in the space.
  • _____ The secretary is searching everywhere for that lost file ˄ for we need it desperately for this afternoon’s meeting.
practice exercises4
Practice Exercises
  • In each of the following sentences, a caret ˄ marks a point of coordination. If the sentence is Type 1, write O in the space at the left. If the sentence is Type 2, write C (for comma) in the space. If the sentence is Type 3, write S (for semicolon) in the space.
  • _____ Maria will either take that job in Los Angeles ˄ or take a tour of Europe immediately after graduation.
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