Cardiovascular system
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Cardiovascular system. System Pulmonary-blood to and from lungs Systemic-blood to and from body Coronary-blood to and from heart muscle Vessels Arteries (efferent)-carry blood away from the heart Veins (afferent)-carry blood to the heart

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Cardiovascular system

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Cardiovascular system

Cardiovascular system

  • System

    • Pulmonary-blood to and from lungs

    • Systemic-blood to and from body

    • Coronary-blood to and from heart muscle

  • Vessels

    • Arteries (efferent)-carry blood away from the heart

    • Veins (afferent)-carry blood to the heart

    • Capillaries-exchange gas and nutrients from blood to tissue, inbetween arteries and veins


Cardiovascular system

  • Anatomy of Heart

    • Myocardium-cardiac (Heart) muscle

    • Left Ventricle-pumps blood to systemic system

    • Right Ventricle-pumps blood to pulmonary system

    • Left Atrium-collects blood from pulmonary system

    • Right atrium- collects blood from systemic system

    • Flow of blood

      • Both atriums drop blood into corresponding ventricle

      • Left ventriclebodyright atriumright ventriclelungsleft atriumleft ventriclebody


Cardiovascular system

  • Physiology of heart

    • Heart beats about 75 times per minute

    • Intrinsic conduction system

      • Node cells- determine rate of contraction

      • Sinoatrial node (SA node)-pacemaker, pass signal to AV node

      • Atrioventricular node (AV)-between atrium and ventricals, delays signal then contracts Ventricle


Cardiovascular system

  • Fibrillation-uncoordinated shuddering of heart

  • Myocardial Infarction-heart attack due to blockage of coronary system

  • Cardiac output-amount of blood pumped by each side of heart in one minute

    • Heart rate X stroke volume (amount of blood pumped by ventricle per contraction)

    • 75 beats/min X 70 ml/beat =5250 ml/mi

  • Starling’s law

    • Critical to stretch heart muscles

    • Stretch heart muscle by venous return

      • Slow heart beat (more time to fill ventricles)

      • Exercise (speed up venous return)

  • Sympathetic Nervous system-speeds up heart beat

  • Parasympathetic-slow heart beat


Cardiovascular system

  • Heart sounds

    • Systole-contraction of ventricles

    • Diastole- relaxation of ventricles

    • Lubb-closing of AV valves

    • Dubb-closing of semilunar valves

    • Murmers-unusual heart sound (swishing), due to improper closing of valve


Cardiovascular system

  • Physiology of Circulation

    • Pulse-expansion and recoil of artery following contraction

    • Blood pressure-pressure exerted on walls of vessels (120/80)

      • Systolic pressure-pressure at peak of contraction (120)

      • Diastolic pressure-pressure when ventricles relax (expanded)

    • Change in blood pressure

      • increased cardiac output


Cardiovascular system

  • Peripheral resistance-amount of friction encountered by blood as it flows through vessels

    • Constricting of vessels

    • Increased blood viscosity

  • Age, weight, time of day, body position, emotional state, drugs, food.

  • Neural factors-sympathetic nervous system, vasoconstriction (bleeding) increase BP due to bleeding

  • Renal Factors (kidneys)-retain water, increase BP, Renin-enzyme that controls sodium in blood, which is followed by water


Cardiovascular system

  • Temperature-cold is vasoconstrictor

  • Chemicals

    • Epinephrine-increases heart rate

    • Nicotine-vasoconstrictor

    • Alcohol-vasodilator

    • Histamine-vasodilator

  • Diet-diets low in salts, fats, cholesterol, prevent high blood pressure

  • Hypotension-low blood pressure

    • Systolic below 100mm Hg, associated with healthy life style

  • Hypertension-high blood pressure

    • 140/90


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