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Cardiovascular System. The Heart. The Heart. Blood Flow Through the Heart. Blood Flow Through the Heart. Heart Valves. Control of the Heartbeat. Sinoatrial node (SA node) “pacemaker” of the heart Regulates the contraction of the entire heart Atrioventricular node (AV node)

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Cardiovascular System

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Cardiovascular system

Cardiovascular System

The heart

The Heart

The heart1

The Heart

Blood flow through the heart

Blood Flow Through the Heart

Blood flow through the heart1

Blood Flow Through the Heart

Heart valves

Heart Valves

Control of the heartbeat

Control of the Heartbeat

  • Sinoatrial node (SA node)

    • “pacemaker” of the heart

    • Regulates the contraction of the entire heart

  • Atrioventricular node (AV node)

    • Relays electrical impulses to the ventricles

  • SA node and AV node work together to create a heartbeat

Control of the heartbeat1

Control of the Heartbeat

  • Pulse – a series of pressure waves within an artery caused by the contraction of the left ventricle



  • Determining Heart Rate

    • Have a partner take your pulse for 15 seconds while seated.

    • Calculate beats per minute.

    • Have a partner take your pulse for 15 seconds while standing.

    • Calculate beats per minute.

    • Jog in place for one minute. Have your partner take your pulse for 15 seconds after jogging.

    • Calculate beats per minute.

  • Was your pulse different in each situation? What might cause your heartbeat to change in each situation?

Self quiz

Self Quiz!

Heart problems

Heart Problems

  • Atherosclerosis – a disease characterized by the build up of fatty materials on the interior walls of coronary arteries

  • Atherosclerosis or blood clots can cause heart attacks

Heart attack myocardial infarction

Heart Attack (myocardial infarction)



Blood types

Blood Types

Blood types1

Blood Types

Blood typing game

Blood Typing Game


Blood disorders

Blood Disorders

  • Sickle Cell Anemia

  • Anemia

  • Hemophilia

The body s defense systems

The Body’s Defense Systems

Immune System!



  • Any agent that causes disease

    • Bacteria

    • Viruses

    • Fungus

    • Protist

    • Parasite

First line of defense

First Line of Defense

  • Barriers

    • Skin

      • Physical barrier

    • Mucus membranes

      • Mucus traps pathogens

Second line of defense

Second Line of Defense

  • Nonspecific Immunity

  • Inflammatory response – suppresses infection

Second line of defense1

Second Line of Defense

  • Temperature response – moderate fever may slow bacterial and viral growth

  • Prolonged or very high fever are dangerous

    • Destroys important proteins

    • Can lead to death

Immune system specific defenses

Immune System: Specific Defenses

  • Recognize pathogens

  • Immune response

  • Memory and immunity

Recognize pathogens

Recognize Pathogens

  • Antigen – any substance that the immune system can recognize and react with

  • Antigens cause Lymphocytes (B cells and T cells) to react

  • Lymphocytes bind to antigen and start attack (immune response)

Immune response

Immune Response

  • Helper T cell engulfs pathogen – helps other cells recognize antigens

  • Killer T cells (cytotoxic T cells) recognize and destroy infected cells

  • Plasma cells make defensive proteins called antibodies

  • Antibodies bind to specific antigens on the pathogen – makes them inactive



  • Memory cells are created after an immune response

  • Next time body exposed to pathogen, antibodies produced very quickly to protect



  • Reminder: Pathogen = Any agent that causes disease

    • Bacteria

    • Viruses

    • Fungus

    • Protist

    • Parasite

Infectious diseases

Infectious Diseases

  • Bacterial

    • Strep throat

    • Cholera

    • Necrotizing fasciitis (flesh eating disease)

  • Virus

    • Chicken pox/ shingles

    • HIV

    • Ebola

  • Fungus

    • Athletes foot

  • Protist

    • Malaria

  • Parasite

    • Tapeworm

Strep throat

Strep Throat

  • Bacterial infection

  • Caused by streptococcus

  • Treated with antibiotics



  • Waterborne disease

  • Transmitted through fecal matter

  • Severe dehydration

  • Can be fatal

Flesh eating disease

Flesh Eating Disease

  • Necrotizing fasciitis

  • Destroys skin, fat, tissue

  • Immunocompromised

Chicken pox

Chicken Pox

  • Varicella zoster virus

  • Highly contagious

  • Skin rash

  • Vaccine

  • Can develop into shingles

    • Herpes zoster

Cardiovascular system


  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

  • Causes the condition AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)

  • Spread through bodily fluids



  • Ebola hemorrhagic fever

  • RNA virus

  • Often fatal

Athlete s foot

Athlete’s Foot

  • Fungal infection of the feet

  • Scaling, flaking, itching of skin

  • Transmissible



  • Common in the tropics

  • Mosquitos are vectors

  • Caused by plasmodium



  • Parasite

  • Contaminated food

  • Live in digestive tract



  • Simulating an epidemic

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