Cardiovascular system
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Cardiovascular System. The Heart. The Heart. Blood Flow Through the Heart. Blood Flow Through the Heart. Heart Valves. Control of the Heartbeat. Sinoatrial node (SA node) “pacemaker” of the heart Regulates the contraction of the entire heart Atrioventricular node (AV node)

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Control of the heartbeat
Control of the Heartbeat

  • Sinoatrial node (SA node)

    • “pacemaker” of the heart

    • Regulates the contraction of the entire heart

  • Atrioventricular node (AV node)

    • Relays electrical impulses to the ventricles

  • SA node and AV node work together to create a heartbeat


Control of the heartbeat1
Control of the Heartbeat

  • Pulse – a series of pressure waves within an artery caused by the contraction of the left ventricle


Activity
Activity

  • Determining Heart Rate

    • Have a partner take your pulse for 15 seconds while seated.

    • Calculate beats per minute.

    • Have a partner take your pulse for 15 seconds while standing.

    • Calculate beats per minute.

    • Jog in place for one minute. Have your partner take your pulse for 15 seconds after jogging.

    • Calculate beats per minute.

  • Was your pulse different in each situation? What might cause your heartbeat to change in each situation?



Heart problems
Heart Problems

  • Atherosclerosis – a disease characterized by the build up of fatty materials on the interior walls of coronary arteries

  • Atherosclerosis or blood clots can cause heart attacks






Blood typing game
Blood Typing Game

  • http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/bloodtypinggame/index.html


Blood disorders
Blood Disorders

  • Sickle Cell Anemia

  • Anemia

  • Hemophilia



Pathogen
Pathogen

  • Any agent that causes disease

    • Bacteria

    • Viruses

    • Fungus

    • Protist

    • Parasite


First line of defense
First Line of Defense

  • Barriers

    • Skin

      • Physical barrier

    • Mucus membranes

      • Mucus traps pathogens


Second line of defense
Second Line of Defense

  • Nonspecific Immunity

  • Inflammatory response – suppresses infection


Second line of defense1
Second Line of Defense

  • Temperature response – moderate fever may slow bacterial and viral growth

  • Prolonged or very high fever are dangerous

    • Destroys important proteins

    • Can lead to death


Immune system specific defenses
Immune System: Specific Defenses

  • Recognize pathogens

  • Immune response

  • Memory and immunity


Recognize pathogens
Recognize Pathogens

  • Antigen – any substance that the immune system can recognize and react with

  • Antigens cause Lymphocytes (B cells and T cells) to react

  • Lymphocytes bind to antigen and start attack (immune response)


Immune response
Immune Response

  • Helper T cell engulfs pathogen – helps other cells recognize antigens

  • Killer T cells (cytotoxic T cells) recognize and destroy infected cells

  • Plasma cells make defensive proteins called antibodies

  • Antibodies bind to specific antigens on the pathogen – makes them inactive


Immunity
Immunity

  • Memory cells are created after an immune response

  • Next time body exposed to pathogen, antibodies produced very quickly to protect


Disease
Disease

  • Reminder: Pathogen = Any agent that causes disease

    • Bacteria

    • Viruses

    • Fungus

    • Protist

    • Parasite


Infectious diseases
Infectious Diseases

  • Bacterial

    • Strep throat

    • Cholera

    • Necrotizing fasciitis (flesh eating disease)

  • Virus

    • Chicken pox/ shingles

    • HIV

    • Ebola

  • Fungus

    • Athletes foot

  • Protist

    • Malaria

  • Parasite

    • Tapeworm


Strep throat
Strep Throat

  • Bacterial infection

  • Caused by streptococcus

  • Treated with antibiotics


Cholera
Cholera

  • Waterborne disease

  • Transmitted through fecal matter

  • Severe dehydration

  • Can be fatal


Flesh eating disease
Flesh Eating Disease

  • Necrotizing fasciitis

  • Destroys skin, fat, tissue

  • Immunocompromised


Chicken pox
Chicken Pox

  • Varicella zoster virus

  • Highly contagious

  • Skin rash

  • Vaccine

  • Can develop into shingles

    • Herpes zoster


HIV

  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

  • Causes the condition AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)

  • Spread through bodily fluids


Ebola
Ebola

  • Ebola hemorrhagic fever

  • RNA virus

  • Often fatal


Athlete s foot
Athlete’s Foot

  • Fungal infection of the feet

  • Scaling, flaking, itching of skin

  • Transmissible


Malaria
Malaria

  • Common in the tropics

  • Mosquitos are vectors

  • Caused by plasmodium


Tapeworm
Tapeworm

  • Parasite

  • Contaminated food

  • Live in digestive tract


Activity1
Activity

  • Simulating an epidemic


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