World war ii
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World War II. The War Begins. Nazi-Soviet Pact. “There exists no real conflict of interest between Germany and Russia.” Signed August 23, 1939 USSR and Germany would not war against each other If either was attacked they would not aid the attacker Partition of Poland

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World war ii

World War II


The war begins

The War Begins


Nazi soviet pact

Nazi-Soviet Pact

  • “There exists no real conflict of interest between Germany and Russia.”

  • Signed August 23, 1939

    • USSR and Germany would not war against each other

    • If either was attacked they would not aid the attacker

    • Partition of Poland

  • Stalin had grown tired of Britain and France


World war ii begins

World War II Begins

  • Group of S.S. dressed as Polish soldiers attacks a radio station in Germany

  • Blitzkrieg – lightning warfare

    • Take as much territory as possible as quickly as possible

  • September 1, 1939 – German army sweeps across the Polish border


World war ii begins1

World War IIBegins

  • September 3, 1939 – English ambassador arrives in Germany

    • Issues ultimatum

    • Germans refuse the ultimatum

  • Britain and France declare war


World war ii begins2

World War IIBegins

  • Soviets move into Poland from the east

    • Claim to protect the Belorussian and Ukrainian minorities

  • Poland taken in less than a month

    • No help from the British or French

    • Germany takes 71,000 sq. miles

    • USSR takes 75,000 sq. miles


World war ii begins3

World War IIBegins

  • Finns able to repel the Soviets

  • “political house-cleaning” in the Red Army – incompetent or inexperienced generals

  • Sheer size of the Soviet army overwhelms the Finns


German invasion of norway

German Invasion of Norway

  • Gain access to the iron mines of northern Sweden

  • Railroad terminal at Narvik connects to northern Sweden

  • Avoid British navy and take the country

  • Luftwaffe – German air force – establishes dominance

  • Denmark taken at the same time


The phony war

The Phony War

  • October 1939 – April 1940

  • Time of war with few military engagements

  • Both sides look for a quick end to the war

    • Sides cannot come to an arrangement because of disagreements over Poland


The maginot line

The Maginot Line

  • Series of stationary defenses along the German/French border

    • Concrete bunkers

    • Pill boxes

  • Great defense against trench warfare, not so much against a mobile military


Maginot line

Maginot Line


Axis and allied

Axis

Germany

Italy

Japan

Allied

United Kingdom

French Resistance

Soviet Union

Later…

United States

Canada

Australia

Axis and Allied


Neutrals

Neutrals

Spain

Switzerland

Sweden

Turkey

Portugal

Ireland

Neutrals


Axis controlled

Axis Controlled Areas

France

Austria

Bohemia and Moravia

Poland

Bulgaria

Norway

Netherlands

Belgium

Denmark

Hungary

Slovakia

Greece

Axis Controlled


Homework the war begins

Homework – The War Begins

  • Define: blitzkrieg, Phony War, Maginot Line

  • What agreement did the Germans and Soviets come to in 1939?

  • How did World War II begin?

  • Why was the Maginot Line ineffective?

  • Name the three major Axis Powers and the four major Allied Powers.


The war in europe

The War in Europe


Invasion through the low countries

Invasion Through the Low Countries

  • Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg

  • German offensive through the low countries

  • Circumvents defenses of the Maginot Line

  • Allied commanders expect an attack through the low countries by the North Sea

  • Attack comes through the lowlands and the Ardennes Forest


Invasion through the low countries1

Invasion Throughthe LowCountries

North Sea

NETHERLANDS

BELGIUM

Germany

LUXEMBOURG

France


Invasion through the low countries2

Invasion Through the Low Countries

  • May 10-14 – Battle of Holland

  • 30,000 civilians killed when the Germans bombed Rotterdam

  • May 18 – Fall of Antwerp, Belgium


Escape from dunkirk

Escape from Dunkirk

  • French and British driven up against the English Channel

  • Mass evacuation

    • 300,000-400,000 soldiers

    • Watercraft used to evacuate

      • Naval ships

      • Merchant marine

      • Personal boats


Escape from dunkirk1

Escape from Dunkirk

  • Hitler’s first major mistake of the war

  • May 24

    • Orders panzer (tank) divisions to stop outside of Dunkirk

    • Relies on Luftwaffe to destroy Allied armies

    • Destruction of the Allied armies would have left Britain defenseless in the case of an invasion


The fall of france

The Fall of France

  • Retreat leaves France to the Germans

  • France is split in two

    • Northern France – occupied by the Germans

    • Southern France – puppet government put in to place

      • Seat of government at Vichy

  • French Resistance led by General Charles de Gaulle


The fall of france1

The Fall of France


England alone

EnglandAlone

  • Neville Chamberlain steps down and Churchill takes his place

    • Characterized as a bulldog

    • Resolved to win the war


Battle of britain

Battle of Britain

  • Operation Sea Lion – German operational name for the invasion of England

  • RAF vs. Luftwaffe – Luftwaffe had four times the number of planes as the RAF

  • English advantages

    • Advanced radar – allows for dogfights

    • Pilots eject


Battle of britain1

Battle of Britain


Battle of britain2

Battle of Britain

  • German targets

    • Air fields

    • Radar stations

  • Hitler tires of slow progress – the Blitz of London begins

  • “Never had so many owed so much to so few.”

    • Winston Churchill


Lend lease

Lend-Lease

  • Maintain American neutrality but aid the Allies

  • $7 billion in weapons and supplies to Britain

  • March 1941-September 1945

    • $48.6 billion to Allies


Atlantic charter

Churchill and Roosevelt

Meeting in Newfoundland

Draw up a statement of principles for a post-war world

Atlantic Charter


Homework the war in europe

Homework – The War in Europe

  • Define: low countries, Luftwaffe, RAF, lend-lease, Atlantic Charter

  • How could the escape from Dunkirk be considered a turning point to the war?

  • How were Chamberlain and Churchill different?


The united states enters world war ii

The United States Enters World War II


Pearl harbor

Pearl Harbor

  • December 7, 1941

  • Mistakes

    • Japanese mini-sub sunk in Pearl Harbor

    • Japanese planes mistaken for American bombers

  • Sunday morning

    • Church

    • Sleeping in

    • surfing


World war ii

Hawaiian Islands


World war ii

Oahu


World war ii

Pearl Harbor


Pearl harbor1

Pearl Harbor

  • Attack by Japanese begins at 7:55 am

  • Battleships become main targets

    • Arizona (destroyed)

    • Oklahoma (destroyed)

    • West Virginia (heavily damaged)

    • California (heavily damaged)

    • Nevada (heavily damaged)

    • Tennessee (moderately damaged)

    • Maryland (moderately damaged)


Pearl harbor2

Pearl Harbor

USS Arizona


Pearl harbor3

Pearl Harbor

USS Arizona Memorial


Pearl harbor4

Pearl Harbor

  • Attack in two waves

  • Attack can be viewed as a failure:

    • American aircraft carriers were at sea

    • United States finally enters the war


America enters the war

America Enters the War

  • December 8, 1941

    • Roosevelt asks Congress for a war declaration

    • United States declares war on Japan


America enters the war1

America Entersthe War

  • “Yesterday, December 7, 1941, a date which will live in infamy. The United States was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the empire of Japan.”


Homework the u s enters wwii

Homework – The U.S. Enters WWII

  • What was America’s policy towards the war before Pearl Harbor?

  • Describe the events of Pearl Harbor in detail.

  • Which ships did the Japanese focus their attacks on? Why was the attack unsuccessful?

  • What was the reaction of the United States to the attack?


Focus returns to europe

Focus Returns to Europe


Operation barbarossa

Operation Barbarossa

  • German invasion of the USSR

    • Hitler’s second big mistake – creates a three front war

  • Soviet strategy

    • Multiple lines, when one is broken fall back to the next one

    • Wait for the winter

    • Final stands at Moscow and Stalingrad


Operation barbarossa1

OperationBarbarossa


The war in north africa

The Warin NorthAfrica

  • The Battle of El-Alamein

    • German Aim - take control of the Suez Canal and stop supplies to the Allies from the east

    • Allied Aims - push the Germans out of North Africa and have a jumping off point for an invasion of Sicily


The war in north africa1

The Warin NorthAfrica

  • Rommel (German) vs. Montgomery (British)

  • The Allies drive the German Afrika corps across the desert to Tunisia


Italy

Italy

  • “Soft underbelly of Europe”

  • Difficulties to invasion

    • Apennine Mountains – similar to Appalachians

    • German reinforcements

  • Invasion of Sicily followed by the invasion of the mainland


Battle of monte cassino

Battle of Monte Cassino


Mussolini

Mussolini


Mussolini1

Mussolini

  • Mussolini executed by Italians and hung upside down in a public square in Milan


The invasion of normandy

The Invasion of Normandy

  • June 6, 1944

  • Operation Overlord

  • Five beachheads

    • Omaha (U.S.)

    • Utah (U.S.)

    • Gold (Great Britain)

    • Juno (Canada)

    • Sword (Great Britain)


The invasion of normandy1

The Invasion of Normandy


The invasion of normandy2

The Invasion of Normandy


The invasion of normandy3

The Invasion of Normandy


The invasion of normandy4

The Invasion of Normandy

  • Decoy invasion at Calais (shortest distance between France and England)

  • Heavy artillery barrage of German positions onshore

  • Paratroopers inland to secure roads and loosen up defenses

  • Invasion force of 150,000 (10,000 dead)


Battle of the bulge

Battle of the Bulge

  • Bastogne, Belgium

  • December 1944

  • Final offensive by the Nazis

  • American general asked to surrender; he responds with “Nuts!”


World war ii

Battle of the Bulge


World war ii

Battle of the Bulge


World war ii

Battle of the Bulge


Hitler s death

Hitler’s Death

  • Following the death of Roosevelt, Hitler believed that the war would turn…he was wrong

  • He commits suicide as the Soviets flood into Berlin

    • Bunker underneath Berlin

    • He and wife Eva Braun


Homework focus returns to europe

Homework – Focus Returns to Europe

  • What was Hitler’s second major mistake of the war?

  • Why was North Africa important to the war aims of the Allies?

  • The first Allied invasion of Europe occurred where?

  • Describe D-Day.

  • What was Germany’s final major offensive of the war? What did Hitler do as the Soviets were bearing down on Berlin?


The pacific theater

The Pacific Theater


World war ii

The War in the Pacific


The war in the pacific

The War in the Pacific

  • Pearl Harbor, Philippines, and Guam attacked at same time

  • Philippines

    • Bataan Death March

      • Forced march of Filipino and American POWs through the jungles to Bataan

    • “I shall return.”

      • Gen. Douglas MacArthur


General douglas macarthur

General Douglas MacArthur


The war in the pacific1

The War in the Pacific

  • Midway

    • Turning point of the war in the Pacific

    • Battle of aircraft carriers

    • Americans had decoded Japanese messages and knew their plans

    • 4 Japanese carriers were sunk

    • 1 American carrier was sunk


The war in the pacific2

The War in the Pacific

  • Guadalcanal

    • Battle to protect American convoys to Australia

    • 24,000 Japanese killed

    • Guerrilla warfare


Thousand yard stare often associated with a soldier who suffered shell shock ptsd

Thousand Yard Stareoften associated with a soldier who suffered shell-shock (PTSD)


The war in the pacific3

The War in the Pacific

  • Island-hopping – WWII strategy of conquering certain Pacific islands that were important to the Allied advance to Japan


The war in the pacific4

The War in the Pacific

  • Iwo Jima

    • Air strip

    • Flag-raising at Mt. Surabachi

    • Est. 20,000 Japanese dead; 6,821 Americans dead


World war ii

Mt. Surabachi


The war in the pacific5

The War in the Pacific

  • Okinawa

    • Gives Americans ability to attack Japan directly


The war in the pacific6

The War in the Pacific

  • Kamikaze – divine wind

    • Suicide attacks by Japanese pilots


The atom bomb

The Atom Bomb

  • Island-hopping costs lives of large numbers of American troops

  • Estimated 500,000 dead in invasion of Japan

  • Tokyo fire bombings

    • 97,000 dead

    • 125,000 wounded

    • 1.2 million homeless


The atom bomb1

The Atom Bomb

  • August 6, 1945

    • “Little Boy”


The atom bomb2

The Atom Bomb

  • August 6, 1945

    • Dropped from the Enola Gay


The atom bomb3

The Atom Bomb

  • August 6, 1945

    • Hiroshima

    • 75,000 dead; thousands more would die from exposure to radiation


The atom bomb4

The Atom Bomb


The atom bomb5

The Atom Bomb

  • August 9, 1945

    • “Fat Man”

    • Nagasaki

  • August 15 - Victory in Japan (V-J) Day


The atom bomb6

The Atom Bomb

  • September 2

    • Formal surrender of Japanese

    • Aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay


V j day celebration in times square

V-J Day Celebration in Times Square


The united nations

The United Nations

  • Created at the Yalta Conference

  • Established in 1946

  • Creates a free Palestinian and free Jewish state

  • Israel is a direct response to the Holocaust


World war ii

Europe after World War II


Marshall plan money given to reconstruct western europe

Marshall PlanMoney given to reconstruct western Europe


Homework the pacific theater

Homework – The Pacific Theater

  • Why was the battle at Guadalcanal an important strategic battle?

  • Put yourself in Truman’s place; would you have dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki?

  • Why was the country of Israel created?

  • What was the Marshall Plan?


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