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1935: Hitler rebuild military (illegal from Treaty of Versailles) ... 1938: Hitler clearly dangerous (strong military, campaigns against Jews) ...

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World war ii l.jpg

World War II

Unit #7

U.S. History CP

2008-2009




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I. WWII Introduction:

  • Begins with the surprise attack by Japanese on Pearl Harbor on December 7th, 1941

  • War ends with 2 bombings by the United States on Japan: Hiroshima August 6,1945 & Nagasaki August 9, 1945.


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II. Two Visions for U.S. Foreign Policy:

  • Imperialism:

    • 1890s: beginning of U.S.’s place in the world

  • Mutual Security:

    • Wilson’s vision: US. Must commit itself to mutual security with the rest of the world (Wilson lost this vision in 1919).


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III. Another War

  • Wilson’s nightmare coming true: another WAR.

  • GERMANY:

    • After WWI: debt, lost land, psychological burden of war

    • Depression had hit hard: frustration boiled up in the 1930s

    • Hitler exploits this frustration


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III. Another War (continued)

  • Japan:

    • Become industrial power in the 1930s (only one in Asia in late 19th century)

    • 1920s-1930s: frustration growing in Japan

      • Needed economic resources from elsewhere

      • Emperor Hirohito committed to expanding Japanese power.


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III. Another War (continued)

  • Germany & Japan:

    • Military aggression

    • Imperial desire

    • Racism

    • FDR decided NOT to intervened.

    • League of Nations ineffective.


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III. Another War (continued)

  • Civil War in China (1926- 1949):

    • Mao Zedong (Communists) vs. Chiang Kai-shek (Nationalists)


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IV. Events Leading to the WAR:

  • 1931: Japan invades Manchuria (northern China)

    • Hoover administration did nothing although refused to acknowledge the seized territory; FDR endorses this.

    • League of Nations critical of aggression but ineffective

    • MESSAGE: other powers in the world won’t stop them.


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IV. Events Leading to the WAR:

  • 1935: Hitler rebuild military (illegal from Treaty of Versailles)

    • October Italy invades Ethiopia (one of the few nations in Africa)


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IV. Events Leading to the WAR:

  • 1936: Germany reclaimed control of Rhineland (taken away in the Treat of Versailles)

    • Spanish Civil War (proxy war): Germany & Italy aid Franco; Soviets support Republicans


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IV. Events Leading to the WAR:

  • 1937: Italy (Mussolini) joins existing Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany & Japan

    • Japanese launch general war in China bombing Shanghai

    • Massacre at Nanjing.


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IV. Events Leading to the WAR:

  • 1938: Hitler clearly dangerous (strong military, campaigns against Jews)

    • March: Germany declares Austria part of Germany; with tanks threatens to take Sudetenland (border between Germany & Czech

    • US, France & Britain could have joined to stop Germany at this point. FDR pleads with Hitler for a peaceful settlement. Hitler refuses.

  • September 1938: Munich Conference- Britain, France, Italy & Germany meet to discuss Sudetenland crisis. Settlement gives Sudentenland to Germany.



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IV. Events Leading to the WAR:

  • 1939: Spring- Hitler takes over the rest of Czechoslovakia.

    • August: Hitler makes “nonaggression” pact with USSR (won’t attack each other; agree to divide Poland)

    • September: Hitler invades Poland. Britain & France declare war against Germany.


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V. WAR BEGINS!

Hitler’s invasion of POLAND, September 1939


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V. WAR BEGINS!

  • 1940:

    • Massive attack on France (Spring)

    • France occupied by Germany (Summer)

    • Air attack on Britain, “Battle of Britain”, fear that Britain would collapse.


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V. WAR BEGINS!

  • 1940:

    • July: Japan announces Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

    • September: Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis pledges to resist U.S. entry into war

    • Late 1940: Japan took advantage of European desettlement (closed China)


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V. WAR BEGINS!

  • Early 1941:

    • Japan moves aggressively in Southeast Asia (Indochina)

    • By summer, Japan has control of South Vietnam all the way down the coast


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V. WAR BEGINS!

  • 1941:

    • Hitler broke “non-agression” pact with USSR

    • Late 1941: Germany moves towards Moscow


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VI. U.S. Actions (pre-entry into war)

  • U.S. committed itself to supporting Britain, and then USSR

    • Shipped massive military goods to Britain

    • 1940 Selective Training & Service Act (first peacetime draft in US)

    • Expansion of U.S. naval/air bases (1940)


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VI. U.S. Actions continued… (pre-entry into war)

  • U.S. committed itself to supporting Britain, and then USSR

    • U.S. started sending armed convoys to protect Britain from German submarines

      • In response to U.S. Greer incident (Sept 1941) where German subs shoot but miss U.S. destroyer

      • FDR says he’ll convoy British ships all way to Iceland and begin shooting German subs.



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VI. U.S. Actions continued… (pre-entry into war)

  • U.S. committed itself to supporting Britain, and then USSR

    • “Lend-Lease” Act of 1941 (“arsenal of democracy)

      • Lend Britain (and other enemies of German) military goods to give back at the end of the war

      • U.S giving away armaments they could afford to produce and Britain could not afford to make

      • Also sent Lend-Lease aid to USSR after Germany invaded.


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VI. U.S. Actions continued… (pre-entry into war)

  • Was FDR trying to sneak U.S. into the war?

    • FDR wanted a fight but was hesitant because: U.S. suffered in WWI and because he didn’t want to get involved in a way with Asia

      • During the war, U.S. did less to stop Japan than Germany. Little to no aid was sent to China to defend themselves against Japanese.


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VI. U.S. Actions continued… (pre-entry into war)

  • Was FDR trying to sneak U.S. into the war?

    • 1940: U.S. applied economic pressure on Japan

      • Summer of 1941 U.S. cut off trade (embargo on fuel, oil, steel, etc.) with Japan when they invaded Indochina

      • U.S. was the world’s leading producer of oil at the time

      • Japan had no oil reserves so turned to Dutch East Indies & Philippines

      • Japan thought that U.S. would go to war to try to knock out their oil supply and therefore BOMBED PEARL HARBOR.


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VI. U.S. Actions continued… (pre-entry into war)

  • FDR got Congress to declare war on Japan with only 1 dissenting vote

    • Germany declared war on U.S. a few days later.



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