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Ancillary Services in Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G). Hao Liang Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1 [email protected] BBCR Smart Grid Subgroup Meeting 2011.1.12.

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Ancillary services in vehicle to grid v2g

Ancillary Services in Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G)

Hao Liang

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

University of Waterloo

Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1

[email protected]

BBCR Smart Grid Subgroup Meeting 2011.1.12


Outline

Outline

  • Introduction

  • Categories of V2G Applications

  • Bidirectional V2G for Frequency Regulation (Phase 2)

  • Unidirectional V2G for Frequency Regulation (Phase 1)

  • Non-Ancillary Service: Load Shaving (Phase 3)

  • Summary


Introduction

Introduction

  • Conventional View of Battery Vehicles (BVs)

– The conventional view expects battery vehicles to be plugged in to charge their

batteries. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicles generate electricity from the fuel in their

tanks. Plug-in hybrids can either run from fuel or can charge from the grid. In the

conventional view, electricity never flows from vehicle to the grid

[1] The Grid-Integrated Vehicle with Vehicle to Grid Technology. University of Delaware. http://www.udel.edu/V2G/.


Introduction1

Introduction

  • V2G Concept

– The V2G concept is that battery, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles all can send power to

the electric grid. For battery and plug-in hybrid vehicles, the power connection is

already there. For fuel cell and fuel-only hybrids, an electrical connection must be

added


Introduction2

Introduction

  • University of Delaware

  • Utility Trials

PG&E, USA, converting a number of company-owned Toyota Prius to be V2G PHEVs at Google's campus

Xcel Energy, USA, converting six Ford Escape Hybrids to PHEVs with V2G


Introduction3

Introduction

  • Other Types of Grid Storage

[2] Energy Storage and Frequency Regulation. http://www.pjm.com.


Categories of v2g applications

Categories of V2G Applications

  • Load Shaving

– Aims at using the energy stored in electric vehicles to compensate for the peak load

of the grid

– From the vehicle owners’ point of view, since electricity price is determined by demand,

the transport cost can be relatively reduced by drawing “cheap” energy from the grid,

and vice versa

  • Ancillary Services (Frequency Regulation)

– An ancillary mechanism to fine-tune the frequency of the grid in a small time scale,

e.g., minutes

– May not necessarily involve energy delivery but simply the use of the capacity of

vehicle batteries


Categories of v2g applications1

Categories of V2G Applications


Categories of v2g applications2

Categories of V2G Applications

  • Ancillary Services (Frequency Regulation, Cont’d)

– Bidirectional V2G: “Load + generator” regulation

– Unidirectional V2G: “Load only” regulation:

May reduce profits to less than 1/4 of what they could gain using bidirectional V2G

All legacy EVs can participate without any retrofit to the EVs themselves or substantial

additional infrastructure in the charging stations

A logical first step in V2G implementation


Ancillary services in vehicle to grid v2g

Bidirectional V2G for Frequency Regulation (Phase 2)

[3] S. Han and K. Sezaki, “Development of an optimal vehicle-to-grid aggregator for frequency regulation,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid,

vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 65–72, Jun. 2010.


Bidirectional v2g for frequency regulation

Bidirectional V2G for Frequency Regulation

  • Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) and Regulation Market

  • Clearing Price (RMCP)


Bidirectional v2g for frequency regulation1

Bidirectional V2G for Frequency Regulation

  • Analysis on Charging Rate Control

– A vehicle is considered as providing regulation service when being idle and the vehicle

is paid from the grid operator. On the other hand, when a vehicle is charging, it has to

pay for purchasing the power from the grid. Thus, a revenue function could be defined

as follows:


Bidirectional v2g for frequency regulation2

Bidirectional V2G for Frequency Regulation

  • Analysis on Charging Rate Control (Cont’d)

– Rewrite the revenue function

– Assuming that the prices are given as hourly data, the second integral term in a discrete

form yields

where N is the number of increment in expected plug-in duration T


Bidirectional v2g for frequency regulation3

Bidirectional V2G for Frequency Regulation

  • Analysis on Charging Rate Control (Cont’d)

– A “Theorem”: charging control should be on or off at maximum charging rate to

maximize the revenue

– Thus, we no more need to be concerned about the charging rate. Instead, we focus on

how to determine the charging sequence


Bidirectional v2g for frequency regulation4

Bidirectional V2G for Frequency Regulation

  • Analysis on Charging Sequence Control

– The continuous variable r(t) can be replaced by a step function C(t), which is only

1 or 0 for the entire duration

– Then the revenue function (3) is revised as


Bidirectional v2g for frequency regulation5

Bidirectional V2G for Frequency Regulation

  • Analysis on Charging Sequence Control (Cont’d)

– Optimal solution: An optimal control sequence could be obtained simply by turning

on (making it 1) from the minimal point of

until the charging duration constraint (8) is satisfied


Bidirectional v2g for frequency regulation6

Bidirectional V2G for Frequency Regulation

  • Consideration of SOC

– For example, from the moment SOC reaches 100%, regulation “down,” which

corresponds to charging of the battery, cannot be performed at all

– The regulation price PR(t) in (7) should be

modified to reflect the energy constraint

as follows


Bidirectional v2g for frequency regulation7

Bidirectional V2G for Frequency Regulation

  • Consideration of SOC (Cont’d)

– Solution: Dynamic Programming

– In order to perform the dynamic programming, the revenue function was employed as

a performance measure with a slight modification to reflect the desired final SOC

control as a cost

where x(t2) is an actual SOC at the end of the control, xT is a desired final SOC,

and  is a proportional factor which reflects the relative importance of the desire to

drive the system to the final SOC xT


Bidirectional v2g for frequency regulation8

Bidirectional V2G for Frequency Regulation

  • Numerical Results

– Regarding the vehicle parameters, we assumed 20 KWh battery with maximum

charging and discharging rate of 0.1 C, which in turn is 2 KW for each direction

– The vehicle was considered with 10% initial SOC, and the desired final SOC was

set to 90%

– The total plug-in duration was set to 12 h. The aggregator should control the

charging to be on for 8 h to transfer the SOC to 90%


Bidirectional v2g for frequency regulation9

Bidirectional V2G for Frequency Regulation

  • Numerical Results (Cont’d)


Ancillary services in vehicle to grid v2g

Unidirectional V2G for Frequency Regulation (Phase 1)

[4] E. Sortomme and M. A. El-Sharkawi, “Optimal charging strategies for unidirectional vehicle-to-grid,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid,

vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 131–138, Mar. 2011.


Unidirectional v2g for frequency regulation

Unidirectional V2G for Frequency Regulation

  • Graphical Description


Unidirectional v2g for frequency regulation1

Unidirectional V2G for Frequency Regulation

  • Regulation Algorithm

  • Research Problem

– Aggregator profits come from two sources: The first is a fixed markup over market price

on energy which is passed on to the consumers. The second is a fixed percentage of the

revenue obtained from providing regulation services

– Optimizing: POP, MxAP, and MnAP, for all vehicles connected to the aggregator


Ancillary services in vehicle to grid v2g

Non-Ancillary Service: Load Shaving (Phase 3)

[5] S. B. Peterson, J. F. Whitacre, and J. Apt, “The economics of using plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery packs for grid storage,”

J. Power Sources, vol. 195, no. 8, pp. 2377–2384, Apr. 2010.

[6] H. Liang, B. J. Choi, W. Zhuang, and X. Shen, "Towards optimal energy store-carry-and-deliver for PHEVs via V2G system," in

Proc. IEEE INFOCOM'12, to appear.


Non ancillary service load shaving

Non-Ancillary Service: Load Shaving

  • Graphical Description


Non ancillary service load shaving1

Non-Ancillary Service: Load Shaving

  • Research Problem

– Daily energy cost minimization of vehicle owners

– Consider: Bi-directional energy flow, vehicle mobility pattern, realistic battery model,

and time-of-use (TOU) electricity price

– Solution: Dynamic programming, specifically, stochastic inventory theory


Summary

Summary

  • Unidirectional V2G for Frequency Regulation (Phase 1)

  • Bidirectional V2G for Frequency Regulation (Phase 2)

  • Non-Ancillary Service: Load Shaving (Phase 3)


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