Vehicle to grid power
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 39

vehicle-to-grid Power PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 48 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

vehicle-to-grid Power. Amardeep Dhanju & Dr. Willett Kempton April 14, 2009 Center for Carbon-free Power Integration University of Delaware. Plug-in for charging. V2G with ISO Control. V2G taps an underutilized resource. US car used 1 hour/day, parked 23 h/d

Download Presentation

vehicle-to-grid Power

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Vehicle to grid power

vehicle-to-grid Power

Amardeep Dhanju & Dr. Willett Kempton

April 14, 2009

Center for Carbon-free Power Integration

University of Delaware


Plug in for charging

Plug-in for charging


V2g with iso control

V2G with ISO Control


V2g taps an underutilized resource

V2G taps an underutilized resource

  • US car used 1 hour/day, parked 23 h/d

  • Average daily travel = 32 miles, thus most storage unused most days

  • Practical power draw from car: 10 - 20 kW

  • US power: generation=978 GW; load=436 GW avg (EIA 2005)

  • US 241 million cars (FHWA 2005) x 15 kW = 3,615 GW, thus...


V2g taps an underutilized resource1

V2G taps an underutilized resource

  • US car used 1 hour/day, parked 23 h/d

  • Average daily travel = 32 miles, thus most storage unused most days

  • Practical power draw from car: 10 - 20 kW

  • US power: generation=978 GW; load=436 GW avg (EIA 2005)

  • US 241 million cars (FHWA 2005) x 15 kW = 3,615 GW, thus...

  • Power of fleet is >3x generation; >8x load!


Energy markets

Energy Markets


Value of regulation

Value of regulation


Basic per vehicle values

Basic per-Vehicle Values

10 –Year Present Value V2G Revenue Potential

Assumptions: 80% availability, Reg. $40/MW-h, Spin. $10/MW-h, 7% discount rate, example calculations


Business case

Business case

  • To sell V2G, need ISO wholesale contract –

    1 MW minimum

  • 1 MW, with extra vehicles for reliability margin, requires 200 high power vehicles (eBox, 16-19 kW) or 1,000 - 2,000 low power (e.g. GM Volt, 20 Amp or ~3 kW)

  • Minimum 200 for ISO trial


Sequence of markets

Sequence of Markets

  • Initial, high-value markets, are A/S

    • Regulation

    • Spinning reserves

  • Later, larger markets with lower value per kW:

    • Defer upgrades to distribution feeders, transformers

    • Peak load reduction, valley filling

    • Power factor correction

    • Balancing wind, shifting solar peak


Magicc mid atlantic grid interactive cars consortium

MAGICC:Mid-Atlantic Grid-Interactive Cars Consortium


Mid atlantic grid interactive car consortium magicc

Mid-Atlantic Grid-Interactive Car Consortium (MAGICC)

Observers

  • Tesla Motors

  • Google.org

  • A123

  • AES Corporation

  • State of Delaware (PSC, Energy Office)

  • Anon

Partners

  • Univ. of Delaware

  • PHI: Delmarva Power, Atlantic Electric, PEPCO, etc.

  • PJM Interconnect

  • AC Propulsion

  • ACUA

  • Comverge

www.magicconsortium.org


Current status

Current status

  • One vehicle working, 6 planned and funded

  • Procedure for utility interconnect approval- Done

  • Assembler is ready to build vehicles with high power and bi-directional flow capabilities


Agc from iso to vehicle via plc

AGC from ISO to Vehicle via PLC


Move iso link to server

Move ISO link to server


80 amp 240 vac with power line carrier for ip

80 AMP, 240 VAC, with Power-line carrier for IP


What the iso sees

What the ISO sees


What the iso sees1

What the ISO sees


Evs providing regulation

EVs providing regulation


V2g aggregator no car plugged in

V2G Aggregator(No Car Plugged-in)


Vehicle to grid power

V2G Aggregator

(Car Plugged-in)


Vehicle to grid power

V2G Aggregator

(in V2G mode)


Wind and v2g

Wind and V2G


Simple model of v2g for wind leveling

Simple model of V2G for wind leveling

  • 220 MW offshore wind power (modelled from buoy 44009 offshore Delaware)

  • Leveling target at 88 MW (40% of nameplate or 14% of average DE load), equal to 8760 average output

  • Use storage of 1000 MWh (1 GWh) to level

    • Storage from just under 30,000 EVs (28,571 eBoxes), about 4% of DE fleet

  • Simplifying assumptions: no other end use storage, no distribution power limits, driving compromised during a few long wind lulls/year

  • Equivalently, 3,250 MW capacity (100% of DE electricity) and 58% of fleet


January wind

January Wind


January wind v2g

January wind + V2G


July wind

July Wind


July wind v2g

July wind + V2G


V2g as wind leveling

V2G as wind leveling

  • Good to reduce ramp rate, fill short gaps (up to 6 hours? one day?)

  • Multi-day wind lulls in this model

    • Still need fossil or some other backup, but runs rarely

    • Long term solutions, non-surface or inherent storage

  • Half of fleet serves very roughly 100% electric -- needs model with load, etc


Marketing research

Marketing research


Ongoing marketing survey

Ongoing marketing survey

  • Web-based survey

    • Sampling biased but close to early target market

    • Allows more complex tradeoffs and customization

  • Respondents will be chosen randomly from within the PJM service area.

  • Target of 1,000 respondents needed due to complex interdependencies of vehicle and V2G contract attributes


Vehicle to grid power

Ongoing marketing survey

  • Potential attributes to test:

    • Recharging time

    • Range with a full charge

    • Range when participating in V2G contract

    • Purchase price

    • Annual fuel cost

    • Annual income from V2G contract

    • Compensate by hours plugged in, versus value to grid

    • Trade off between V2G revenue and being guaranteed a certain level of charge


Building a fleet

Building a Fleet


Current fleet

Current Fleet

  • AC Propulsion eBoxes (one in DE, one in CA)

  • UD Fuel Cell Bus


Fleet expansion

Fleet expansion


Fleet expansion1

Fleet expansion


Fleet expansion2

Fleet expansion

  • To test aggregator, need multiple vehicles

  • OEMs not building grid-oriented cars

  • DOE award cost-share matched with 2 Delaware agencies + utility

    • Add 4 cars in state fleet, V2G dispatch

    • Test software on real vehicle use

  • V2G market test: 200 cars (several possible partners)


Summary

Summary

  • Large-scale CO2-free power fluctuates

  • Now doing individual vehicle dispatch under AGC; simple model of wind fill-in and providing regulation services

  • Work underway

    • Software for aggregator & vehicle

    • Market research for V2G contracts

    • Dispatch on small fleet (~6 cars)

    • Fleet for A/S contract (~200)


End more info www udel edu v2g

Endmore info: www.udel.edu/V2G


  • Login