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vehicle-to-grid Power. Amardeep Dhanju & Dr. Willett Kempton April 14, 2009 Center for Carbon-free Power Integration University of Delaware. Plug-in for charging. V2G with ISO Control. V2G taps an underutilized resource. US car used 1 hour/day, parked 23 h/d

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Vehicle to grid power
vehicle-to-grid Power

Amardeep Dhanju & Dr. Willett Kempton

April 14, 2009

Center for Carbon-free Power Integration

University of Delaware




V2g taps an underutilized resource
V2G taps an underutilized resource

  • US car used 1 hour/day, parked 23 h/d

  • Average daily travel = 32 miles, thus most storage unused most days

  • Practical power draw from car: 10 - 20 kW

  • US power: generation=978 GW; load=436 GW avg (EIA 2005)

  • US 241 million cars (FHWA 2005) x 15 kW = 3,615 GW, thus...


V2g taps an underutilized resource1
V2G taps an underutilized resource

  • US car used 1 hour/day, parked 23 h/d

  • Average daily travel = 32 miles, thus most storage unused most days

  • Practical power draw from car: 10 - 20 kW

  • US power: generation=978 GW; load=436 GW avg (EIA 2005)

  • US 241 million cars (FHWA 2005) x 15 kW = 3,615 GW, thus...

  • Power of fleet is >3x generation; >8x load!




Basic per vehicle values
Basic per-Vehicle Values

10 –Year Present Value V2G Revenue Potential

Assumptions: 80% availability, Reg. $40/MW-h, Spin. $10/MW-h, 7% discount rate, example calculations


Business case
Business case

  • To sell V2G, need ISO wholesale contract –

    1 MW minimum

  • 1 MW, with extra vehicles for reliability margin, requires 200 high power vehicles (eBox, 16-19 kW) or 1,000 - 2,000 low power (e.g. GM Volt, 20 Amp or ~3 kW)

  • Minimum 200 for ISO trial


Sequence of markets
Sequence of Markets

  • Initial, high-value markets, are A/S

    • Regulation

    • Spinning reserves

  • Later, larger markets with lower value per kW:

    • Defer upgrades to distribution feeders, transformers

    • Peak load reduction, valley filling

    • Power factor correction

    • Balancing wind, shifting solar peak


Magicc mid atlantic grid interactive cars consortium
MAGICC:Mid-Atlantic Grid-Interactive Cars Consortium


Mid atlantic grid interactive car consortium magicc
Mid-Atlantic Grid-Interactive Car Consortium (MAGICC)

Observers

  • Tesla Motors

  • Google.org

  • A123

  • AES Corporation

  • State of Delaware (PSC, Energy Office)

  • Anon

Partners

  • Univ. of Delaware

  • PHI: Delmarva Power, Atlantic Electric, PEPCO, etc.

  • PJM Interconnect

  • AC Propulsion

  • ACUA

  • Comverge

www.magicconsortium.org


Current status
Current status

  • One vehicle working, 6 planned and funded

  • Procedure for utility interconnect approval- Done

  • Assembler is ready to build vehicles with high power and bi-directional flow capabilities








V2g aggregator no car plugged in
V2G Aggregator(No Car Plugged-in)


V2G Aggregator

(Car Plugged-in)


V2G Aggregator

(in V2G mode)



Simple model of v2g for wind leveling
Simple model of V2G for wind leveling

  • 220 MW offshore wind power (modelled from buoy 44009 offshore Delaware)

  • Leveling target at 88 MW (40% of nameplate or 14% of average DE load), equal to 8760 average output

  • Use storage of 1000 MWh (1 GWh) to level

    • Storage from just under 30,000 EVs (28,571 eBoxes), about 4% of DE fleet

  • Simplifying assumptions: no other end use storage, no distribution power limits, driving compromised during a few long wind lulls/year

  • Equivalently, 3,250 MW capacity (100% of DE electricity) and 58% of fleet






V2g as wind leveling
V2G as wind leveling

  • Good to reduce ramp rate, fill short gaps (up to 6 hours? one day?)

  • Multi-day wind lulls in this model

    • Still need fossil or some other backup, but runs rarely

    • Long term solutions, non-surface or inherent storage

  • Half of fleet serves very roughly 100% electric -- needs model with load, etc



Ongoing marketing survey
Ongoing marketing survey

  • Web-based survey

    • Sampling biased but close to early target market

    • Allows more complex tradeoffs and customization

  • Respondents will be chosen randomly from within the PJM service area.

  • Target of 1,000 respondents needed due to complex interdependencies of vehicle and V2G contract attributes


Ongoing marketing survey

  • Potential attributes to test:

    • Recharging time

    • Range with a full charge

    • Range when participating in V2G contract

    • Purchase price

    • Annual fuel cost

    • Annual income from V2G contract

    • Compensate by hours plugged in, versus value to grid

    • Trade off between V2G revenue and being guaranteed a certain level of charge



Current fleet
Current Fleet

  • AC Propulsion eBoxes (one in DE, one in CA)

  • UD Fuel Cell Bus




Fleet expansion2
Fleet expansion

  • To test aggregator, need multiple vehicles

  • OEMs not building grid-oriented cars

  • DOE award cost-share matched with 2 Delaware agencies + utility

    • Add 4 cars in state fleet, V2G dispatch

    • Test software on real vehicle use

  • V2G market test: 200 cars (several possible partners)


Summary
Summary

  • Large-scale CO2-free power fluctuates

  • Now doing individual vehicle dispatch under AGC; simple model of wind fill-in and providing regulation services

  • Work underway

    • Software for aggregator & vehicle

    • Market research for V2G contracts

    • Dispatch on small fleet (~6 cars)

    • Fleet for A/S contract (~200)


End more info www udel edu v2g
Endmore info: www.udel.edu/V2G


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