Roots of democracy
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Roots of Democracy. World History Belcastro. Two Categories of Government. Democracy – Government by the people / Decisions made by the people Autocracy - Government by one person (King / Queen / Emperor / Pharaoh). Decision Making Autocratic or Democratic?.

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Roots of Democracy

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Roots of Democracy

World History

Belcastro


Two Categories of Government

  • Democracy – Government by the people / Decisions made by the people

  • Autocracy - Government by one person (King / Queen / Emperor / Pharaoh)


Decision MakingAutocratic or Democratic?

  • Teacher decides there will be a test on Friday

  • Group of Friends decide on which movie to go to by discussing three possible movies and voting on which one they want to see.

  • Fast food Manager decides to give workers a dollar per hour raise


Autocratic or Democratic?

  • Parents listen to daughter complain about staying out late and decide to let child stay out 1 hour later.

  • Parents allow all 3 children to choose (vote) what vacation to go on.

  • Mayor, elected by citizens, decides to build a new city hall

  • Citizens voted in favor of a city tax measure to increase funding to schools


Autocratic Advantages

  • Efficient

  • Order

  • Changes can Happen Quickly


Autocratic Disadvantages

  • Needs a Strong Leader

  • Decisions may not be interest of everyone

  • Too much power leads to corruption


Democratic Advantages

  • Everyone has a say

  • Corruption more difficult

  • Power too diffuse


Democratic Disadvantages

  • Messy, takes time

  • Sometimes hard to make difficult decisions

  • Need an Educated Citizenry


Autocratic forms of Government

  • Theocracy

  • Monarchy

  • Tyranny

  • Oligarchy

  • Aristocracy


Democratic forms of Government

  • Direct Democracy

  • Republic

  • Parliamentary System

  • Constitutional Monarchy


Anarchy

  • Total Lack of Government (State of Nature)

  • No Rules, No Leaders


Democracy

  • Rule by the masses/people

  • No Leader All Decisions made by the community

  • Created in ancient Athens

  • True Democracies only work in small groups


Republic

  • Rule by People’s Representative

  • Created in Ancient Rome

    • Senator = Representative


Theocracy

  • Rule by Religion

  • Leader: The Priest or Main Religious Figure

  • Examples: Ancient Egypt, Modern Iran, Vatican City


????????

  • What would be some problems with having government based on a single religion?


Monarchy

  • Rule by a single leader, typically claims Divine Right


Oligarchy

  • Rule by a few individuals


Aristocracy

  • Rule by the Wealthy


Athenian Democracy(Solon, Cliesthenese, and Pericles)


Athenian Democracy(Solon, Cleisthenese, and Pericles)


Solon

  • Outlawed Slavery

  • 4 Classes based on Wealth not Heredity

  • Only 3 Higher classes were able to hold public office

  • Fairer code of laws

  • Despite reforms Athens continued to be an autocracy


Cleisthenese

  • Reorganized Assembly

  • Allowed all citizens to submit laws for debate and passage

  • Created Council of 400

    • Advised Assembly

    • Seen as Founder of Greek Democracy


Pericles

  • Led Athens in Golden Age 461-429 B.C

    • Established Direct Democracy

    • Increased number of public officials

    • Poorer citizens were able to participate


Greek Philosophy

  • Greek Thinkers Assumptions

    • 1.Universe is orderly

    • 2.People can understand order of universe

  • Respect for Human Intelligence and Reason allowed Democracy to flourish


Aristotle vs. Plato


Plato

  • “The Republic”

  • Rule of Philosopher Kings

    • Democracy = Rule of the Appetites

    • Aristocracy= Rule of the Rich


Aristotle

  • “Politics”

  • Man is by nature political

  • Legitimate Government- common good

    • Tyranny?, Democracy?

  • Constitutional Government


Roman Republic

  • Roman Society was made of Plebians and Patricians

  • Rome’s Republic

    • Senate

    • 2 Consuls

    • Assembly

    • Dictator


Roman Law

Twelve Tables step toward fair government

Complied into “Justinian Code”

“government of laws not men”


Judaism

Hebrew’s Monotheism

-Created in God’s image, live moral lives

- “Divine Spark”

- God Given Rights, Freedom

- 10 Commandments

- Ethical vs. Legal Code


Christianity

Jesus of Nazareth

- emphasized morality equality and compassion

- spread of Judeo-Christian ideas through Roman Empire


Renaissance

  • Renewed interest in Classical Culture

  • Humanism

  • Italian vs. Northern Renaissance

  • Spread of Ideas through Printing Press


Leonardo Da Vinci


Leonardo Da Vinci


Leonardo Da Vinci


Raphael Sanzio


Francesco Petrarch


Giovanni Boccaccio


Niccolo Machiavelli


Albrecht Durer


Jan Van Eyck


Pieter Bruegel


Desiderius Erasmus


Thomas More


William Shakespeare


Reformation

  • Martin Luther’s 95 Theses

    • Individuality and freedom from Church

  • England’s Protestant Revolution

  • Calvinism

  • Catholic Reformation


England’s Medieval Democratic Developments

  • Henry II

    • Jury System

    • Common law

  • King John

    • Magna Carta (Great Charter)

      • Contract between King and Nobles

      • Governance according to law

      • Due Process of Law

      • Consent of Governed (Parliament)


England’s Civil War

  • King James I and Divine Right

  • Charles I and the Petition of Right

  • 1642- Charles tries to Arrest Parliament

  • 1642-1649 English Civil War

    • Royalists/Cavaliers vs. Roundheads

    • 1649 Roundhead victory under Oliver Cromwell’s Leadership

    • 1649 Charles I Beheaded


England’s Glorious Revolution

  • Cromwell first establishes a commonwealth

  • Cromwell tears up constitution and becomes Lord Protectorate

    • Puritan Morality

  • Restoration of the Monarchy = Charles II

    • Habeas Corpus

  • Rule of James II

  • William and Mary and the Glorious Revolution

    • Bill of Rights, Cabinet System


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