Actin
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Actin. Highly conserved Most abundant intracellular protein (in eukaryotes). Fig 18-4. Structure of actin. Polarity of molecule ‘-” and ‘+’ ends T form and D form G- actin vs F- actin. Fig 18-2. Structure of actin. View from ‘-’end. Fig 18-2. Bundles and Networks.

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Actin

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Actin

Actin

Highly conserved

Most abundant intracellular

protein (in eukaryotes)

Fig 18-4


Structure of actin

Structure of actin

Polarity of molecule

‘-” and ‘+’ ends

T form and D form

G- actin vs F- actin

Fig 18-2


Structure of actin1

Structure of actin

View from ‘-’end

Fig 18-2


Bundles and networks

Bundles and Networks

What is the benefit of these kinds of associations?


Stability of actin

Stability of actin

Stability depends on environment– ion and g-actin concentration

Provides support through DYNAMIC arrangements

including both structure and gel-like qualities of cytosol


Actin filaments dynamics

Actin filaments dynamics

Filaments utilizes 3 steps: lag period, elongation, steady state

ATP hydrolysis NOT required for polymerization

ATP hydrolysis changes kinetics of polymerization

+ vs - end?

http://www.bms.ed.ac.uk/research/smaciver/lectures/Cs2.htm

Illustration of treadmilling CBI 25.2


Microtubules

Microtubules

Protofilament:

Polymer of

a /b tubulin heterodimers

13 protofilaments= microtubule

Stable and unstable populations

Exhibit dynamic instability

Fig 19-5

Fig 19-1


Microtubule dynamics

Microtubule dynamics

http://www.bms.ed.ac.uk/research/smaciver/lectures/Cs2.htm

+ vs - end

Steps in formation

protofilament formation

microtubule assembly

microtubule elongation

Microtubules treadmill AND undergo dynamic instability


Factors effecting polymerization depolymerization

Factors effecting polymerization/ depolymerization

Critical Concentration: Cc

Actin: ends have different Cc

(+) 0.1mM

(-) 0.8mM

cellular concentration 0.5mM

Consequences?

Microtubules: One end ‘in’ MTOC

Consequences?

Associated proteins

Toxins


And why are we discussing this

And why are we discussing this?

Shmoos form from reorganization of actin cytoskeleton

Shmoo tip ‘extends’ due to vesicles specifically delivered

via actin bound motor protein

Microtubules are main ‘highway’ vesicular traffic


Why important for neuronal function

Why important for neuronal function?

Fig 23-30

Actin in development CBI21.5

Microtubules in axon core and protein localization

Intermediate filaments in mechanical stability of neurons


What makes one mt different from another

What makes one MT different from another?

Accessories!


Regulating effective concentrations

Regulating Effective Concentrations


Toxins

Toxins

Effecting Actin

Cytocholasin D

Latrunculin

Phalloidin

Bind + ends

Bind G-actin

Bind between subunits on F-actin

Effecting Microtubules

Colchicine

Colcemid

Taxol

Vinblastine

Block formation by binding MT + end

(favors depolymerization)

Same as colchicine but reversible

Stabilizes by binding sides

Lo concentrations act like taxol: hi

promotes crystalline arrays

Net effect on cell-- death

Research and Medicinal purposes for some


Associated proteins cellular

Actin associated

Microtubule associated

Associated proteins: cellular

Roles of associated proteins


Could this relate to bipolar disorder

Could this relate to Bipolar Disorder?

http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/microtubule_structure.htm#MAPs


Next time

Next time

Introduction to molecular motors


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