Section 4: Later Peoples of the Fertile Crescent. The Big Idea Many cultures ruled parts of the Fertile Crescent. Main Ideas Babylonians conquer Mesopotamia Created a code of law. Invasions changed the region’s culture.
Brilliantwar leader who brought all of Mesopotamia into his BabylonianEmpire
King of the Babylonia empire for 42 years. Creator of the Code of Hammurabi, one of the world’s oldest law codes.
CODE OF LAW:
A written set of laws that apply to everyone under a government
The Hittites built a strong kingdom in Asia Minor. They were the first to master ironworking, so they made the strongest weapons of the time. The Hittites used a chariot.
Chariot: a wheeled, horse-drawn cart, which allowed warriors to move quickly around the battlefield.
They were taken over by the Kassites after their king was assassinated.
The Kassites ruled for almost 400 years.
An ancient country along the Tigris in present-day Iraq.
An ancient city on the Tigris and the capital of Assyria
A high, arched structure built to carry water over long distances.
The ancient capital of Babylonia in the 1700s B.C.
An ancient Mesopotamian empire that extended along the Fertile Crescent.
At the Strait of Gibraltar, 8 miles of water separate Africa from Europe. Here the Mediterranean joins the Atlantic.
Phoenicia was an ancient civilization bordering the Mediterranean Sea. The Phoenicians were known for trading. In earlier times, they were known as the Philistines or “Sea Peoples.
The name Phoenicia comes from the Greek word phoinix, meaning purple.
Phoenicians made purple dye from the body of the murex snail. They soaked linen and wool in this dye to make expensive fabrics.
Phoenicians built trading ship from cedar wood grown on their hillsides.
These ships carried goods throughout the Mediterranean Sea.
Phoenician sailors used the Mediterranean winds and currents to speed their voyages.
“Farther than this you cannot go.”
Strait of Gibraltar
Treasures discovered on a sunken Phoenician trader: amber, ivory, and bronze .
Phoenician merchants carried on a lively trade.
Phoenician merchants traded cedar, purple dye, cloth, oil and wine...
for Egyptian grain, ivory, and other goods.
The Phoenicians were famous for their beautiful glass vases.
Clay pots from Greece were found on Phoenician trading ships.
Phoenicia fell to both Assyria and Babylon.
The great city of Tyre fell tothe Assyrians and Babylonians.
The colony of Tyre fell to King Nebuchadnezzer of Babylon in the last quarter of the sixth century B.C. 200 years later, Tyre would fall to Alexander the Great.
The Phoenicians had begun to set up colonies, so the fall of Tyre did not mean the end of the Phoenician people. A colony is a territory or community controlled by a distant government.
After the fall of Tyre, Carthage became the center of Phoenician life in the west. Carthage is located in what is today Tunisia.From its central location between eastern and western Mediterranean, Carthage would rule trade for many years.
Why It Matters
Phoenician traders linked together many ancient civilizations through trade. They also introduced and spread a system of writing based on an alphabet we still use today.