The fertile crescent
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The Fertile Crescent. Objective: - Explain how Mesopotamian civilization began and grew. - Explain and describe where one of the first civilizations arose. - Describe the early agricultural techniques of Mesopotamia. - Explain what an economic surplus is.

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The fertile crescent

The Fertile Crescent

Objective:

- Explain how Mesopotamian civilization began and grew.

- Explain and describe where one of the first civilizations arose.

- Describe the early agricultural techniques of Mesopotamia.

- Explain what an economic surplus is.

- Explain why people settled in Mesopotamia.


Where civilization began
Where Civilization Began

  • Civilizations are groups of people who have a complex and organized society within a culture.

    • The first civilization began around 3500 B.C.

    • Each civilization has its own customs, food supply, social divisions, government, religion, and technology.

  • Civilization first developed in a crescent shaped area.


The fertile crescent1
The Fertile Crescent

  • The region stretched from Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf.

  • It was the land between the Tigris and the Euphrates River.


The fertile crescent today
The Fertile Crescent Today

  • Today, the land of the Fertile Crescent is part of the countries of Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Israel.




The land of the fertile crescent2
The Land of the Fertile Crescent

  • The forests of the fertile crescent provided a home for animals such as deer, sheep, and goats.

  • The grassland provided homes for wild pigs, oxen, and lions.

  • In the central area was a plain, or flat area of land, bordered by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

    • This area was known as Mesopotamia.

      • This means, “land between two rivers.”


Climate and rivers
Climate and Rivers

  • The climate was not ideal for farming.

  • Summers were long, hot, and dry with temperatures reaching 120°F.

  • Rainfall is inconsistent.

  • Because rainfall was inconsistent, the people had to figure out a way to get the water to their crops.

    • Irrigation – a system that helped people control when and where to water their crops.

      • Trenches and ditches brought water from the river to the fields.



The people
The People

  • The people of Mesopotamia were problem solvers.

    • They made irrigation systems.

    • They made bricks out of mud, clay, and straw.

      • They then dried the bricks with the sun.

      • People used these bricks to build homes, temples, and palaces.

    • People worked as farmers and herders.


Growth of city states and trade
Growth of City – States and Trade

  • Once farming improved, people had time to build their villages.

    • Families and population began to grow.

  • Several villages included Uruk, Kish, Lagash, Nippur, Umma, and Ur.

  • These villages eventually became city-states.

  • A city-state is a city that is an individual unit, complete with its own form of government and traditions.

  • Some of the people were artisans, or craftspeople.

    • They were potters and weavers.

  • Some people also became traders.

    • This helped them get the natural resources they needed.


Time to review
Time to Review

  • Where did the first civilizations arise?

  • What was the effect of the low rainfall in Mesopotamia?

  • What caused city-states to be established?

  • How did the Mesopotamian farmers use the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to solve the problem of low rainfall?

  • How did Mesopotamian people get the natural resources they needed?


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