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Lesson 12-Encryption

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- Understand basic encryption concepts.
- Understand private key encryption.
- Understand public key encryption.
- Understand digital signatures.
- Understand key management.
- Understand trust in the system.

- Encryption is simply the obfuscation of information in such a way so as to allow authorized individuals to see it, but to hide it from unauthorized individuals.
- Individuals having the appropriate key to decrypt the information are defined as authorized.

Security Services with encryption:

- Confidentiality: Used to hide information from unauthorized individuals, either in transit or in storage.
- Integrity: Used to identify changes to information either in transit or in storage.
- Accountability: Used to authenticate the origin of information and prevent the origin of information from repudiating the fact that the information came from that origin.

Encryption terms:

- Plaintex
- Ciphertex
- Algorithm
- Key
- Encryption

Encryption terms (continued):

- Decryption
- Cryptography
- Cryptographer
- Cryptanalysis
- Cryptanalyst

Encryption systems can be attacked in three ways:

- Through weaknesses in the algorithm.
- Through brute force against the key.
- Through weaknesses in the surrounding system.

Private key encryption:

- Requires all parties who are authorized to read the information to have the same key.
- Reduces the overall problem of protecting the information to one of protecting the key.
- Is the most widely used encryption.

- What is private key encryption?
- Substitution ciphers.
- One-time pads.
- Triple DES.
- Data encryption standard.
- Password encryption.

- Private key encryption is also known as symmetric key encryption because it uses the same key to encrypt information as is needed to decrypt.
- Private key encryption provides for the confidentiality of the information while it is encrypted.
- Only those who know the key can decrypt the message.

Private key algorithm

- Julius Caesar used a substitution cipher called the Caesar cipher.
- This cipher consists of replacing each letter with the letter three positions later in the alphabet.

- Substitution ciphers suffer from one primary weakness—the frequency of the letters in the original alphabet does not change.
- Further development of frequency analysis also shows that certain two- and three-letter combinations show up frequently.

- The One Time Pads (OTPs) system is the only theoretically unbreakable encryption system.
- An OTP is a list of numbers, in a completely random order. It is used to encode a message.
- As its name implies, the OTP is only used once.
- OTPs are used (but only for short messages) in very high-security environments.

- The algorithm for the Data Encryption Standard (DES) was developed by IBM in the early 1970s.
- DES uses a 56-bit key. The key uses 7 bits of eight 8-bit bytes (the 8th bit of each byte is used for parity).
- DES is a block cipher that operates on one 64-bit block of plaintext at a time.
- There are 16 rounds of encryption in DES, where each round uses a different subkey.

DES Block Diagram

There are four modes of operation for DES:

- Electronic code book.
- Cipher block chaining.
- Cipher feedback.
- Output feedback.

Triple DES functional Diagram

- The standard Unix password encryption scheme is a variation of DES. The password encryption function is actually a one-way function.
- Each user chooses a password. The algorithm uses the first eight characters of the password.

- The system then chooses a 12-bit number based on the system time. This is called the salt.
- Most Unix systems now offer the option of using shadow password files for just this reason.

- At the end of 2000, NIST announced that Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen, cryptographers from Belgium, had won the competition with their algorithm Rijndael.
- Rijndael is a block cipher that uses keys and blocks of 128, 192, or 256 bits. These key lengths make brute-force attacks computationally infeasible at this time.
- The algorithm consists of 10 to 14 rounds, depending on the size of the plaintext block and the size of the key.

There are several other private key algorithms available in various security systems. Among them are the following:

- The International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) was developed in Switzerland. IDEA uses a 128-bit key and is also used in Pretty Good Privacy (PGP).
- RC5 was developed by Ron Rivest at MIT. It allows for variable length keys.

Private key algorithms (continued):

- Skipjack was developed by the United States government for use with the Clipper Chip. It uses an 80-bit key, which may be marginal in the near future.
- Blowfish allows for variable length keys up to 448 bits and was optimized for execution on 32-bit processors.

- Public Key encryption is a more recent invention than private key encryption.
- The primary difference between the two types of encryption is the number of keys used in the operation.
- The private key encryption uses a single key to both, encrypt and decrypt information.
- The public key encryption uses two keys. One key is used to encrypt information and a different key, to decrypt it.

- What is public key encryption?
- Diffe-Hellman key exchange.
- RSA.

- The public key is published with information as to who is the owner.
- Another property of public key encryption is that if you have one of the keys of a pair, you cannot compute the other key.
- If confidentiality is desired, encryption is performed with the public key.

Public key encryption

- The Diffe-Hellman key exchange was developed to solve the problem of key distribution for private key encryption systems.
- The idea was to allow a secure method of agreeing on a private key without the expense of sending the key through another method.

Functioning of Diffe-Hellman algorithm:

- Assume we have two people who need to communicate securely and thus need to agree on an encryption key.
- P1 and P2 agree on two large integers a and b such that 1 < a < b.
- P1 then chooses a random number i and computes I = ai mod b. P1 sends I to P2.

Functioning of Diffe-Hellman algorithm (continued):

- P2 then chooses a random number j and computes J = aj mod b. P2 sends J to P1.
- P1 computes k1 = Ji mod b.
- P2 computes k2 = Ij mod b.
- We have k1 = k2 = aij mod b and thus k1 and k2 are the secret keys to use for the other transmission.

- In 1978, Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Len Adleman released the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) public key algorithm.
- Unlike the Diffe-Hellman algorithm, RSA can be used for encryption and decryption.
- Also unlike Diffe-Hellman, the security of RSA is based on the difficulty of factoring large numbers.

The basic algorithm for confidentiality is very simple:

- ciphertext = (plaintext)e mod n
- plaintext = (ciphertext)d mod n
- private key = {d, n}
- public key = {e, n}
The difficulty in calculating d given e and n provides the security.

To generate an RSA key pair, follow these steps:

- Choose two prime numbers p and q and keep them secret.
- Calculate n = pq.
- Calculate φ(n) = (p – 1)(q – 1).
- Select e such that e is relatively prime to φ(n).
- Determine d such that (d)(e) = 1 mod φ(n) and that d < φ(n).

- Digital signature is a method of authenticating electronic information using encryption.
- Digital signatures protect information from modification after it has been received and decrypted.

- Digital signatures put information through a hash function to create a checksum that is encrypted with a private key and travels with the information.
- This checksum can be used to verify that the information was not modified.

- The security and usefulness of a digital signature depend on the protection of the user’s private key and a secure hash function.
- A hash function is secure if:
- the function is one-way, and
- it is difficult to construct two pieces of information that provide the same checksum when run through the function.

- Secure hash functions should create a checksum of at least 128 bits.
- The two most common hash functions are MD5 and SHA.

Digital Signature operation

- Key management is one of the most critical aspects of an encryption system.
- It includes creating strong keys, distributing them securely, certifying them correct, protecting while in use, and revoking them when they are compromised or expired.
- Most encryption systems have a method for users to generate keys—in many cases, the user chooses a password.

- Keys must be transported securely to ensure the integrity of the keys.
- If keys are transmitted, they must be checked on arrival to ensure they have not been manipulated (usually done manually or by digital signatures).

- Certificate Authorities (CAs) ensure the integrity of the keys and prevent an attacker from introducing their own keys.
- Public keys require integrity protection (provided by certification), but they do not require confidentiality protection. However, all copies of the private key of a public key system must be protected at all times.

- Session keys may only exist for a given session and may be deleted after the session.
- Public key pairs are generally certified for one or two years.
- If a key is lost or compromised, the owner of the key should inform users that it is not to be used.
- In the case of a public key encryption system, the owner must post the revocation to all of the potential key servers.

- Trust is the underlying concept of all security and encryption.
- There are two primary models that are used for trust:
- Hierarchical trust
- Web of trust

- The Hierarchical Trust model is based on a chain of authority, in which you trust someone if someone higher up in the chain certifies it.
- The Hierarchical Trust model is complicated to put into practice because there is no real root-level CA.
- Establishing an internal CA and public key infrastructure for a business is a challenging task that demands a lot of resources.

- The Web of Trust model was first used by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP).
- It is based on the concept that each user certifies their own certificate and passes that certificate off to known associates.
- The primary advantage is that there is no large investment in infrastructure.
- The primary disadvantage is a lack of scalability.

- Encryption is simply the obfuscation of information in such a way so as to allow authorized individuals to see it, but to hide it from unauthorized individuals.
- The Private Key encryption requires all parties authorized to read the information to have the same key.
- The Public Key encryption uses two keys. One key is used to encrypt information and another key is used to decrypt it.

- A digital signature is a method of authenticating electronic information using encryption.
- Key Management includes creating strong keys, distributing them securely, certifying that they are correct, protecting them while they are in use, and revoking them when they are compromised or expired.
- There are two primary models that are used for trust: Hierarchical Trust and Web of Trust.