The Respiratory System
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The Respiratory System. Lesson # 12. Chapter 23. Objectives:. 1- To explain the general functions of the respiratory system. 2- List the anatomical and functional divisions of the respiratory system. 3 - To describe the structure and functions of each organ of the respiratory system.

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Lesson # 12

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Lesson 12

The Respiratory System

Lesson # 12

Chapter 23

Objectives:

1- To explain the general functions of the respiratory system.2- List the anatomical and functional divisions of the respiratory system.

3- To describe the structure and functions of each organ of the respiratory system.

4- To describe the respiratory membrane.


Lesson 12

Functions of the Respiratory System

  • 1- It provides an extensive surface for gas exchange between the air and the circulating blood.

  • 2- It moves air to and from the exchange surfaces of the lungs along the respiratory conducting system.

  • 3- It protects the respiratory surfaces from dehydration, tem-perature changes, or other variations of the outside environment.

  • 4- It protects the respiratory tissues and other tissues from invasion of pathogens.

  • 5- It produces sounds involve in speaking, singing, and other vocalizations (laughing, crying).

  • 6- It facilitates the olfactory sense by olfactory receptors in the superior portion of the nasal cavity.


Lesson 12

- Nose

- Nasal cavity

1-Upper Respiratory System

- Paranasal sinuses

- Pharynx

- Larynx

- Trachea

2- LowerRespiratory System

- Bronchi

- Bronchioles

- Alveoli of the lungs

Organization of the Respiratory System

Respiratory System


Lesson 12

Nose

Nasal cavity

Pharynx

Larynx

Trachea

Bronchi

Bronchioles

Frontal sinus

Sphenoidal sinus

UPPER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Right lung

Left lung


Lesson 12

1-Conductingdivision

2- Respiratory division

Physiological Division of the Respiratory System

- Nose

- Nasal cavity

- Pharynx

- Larynx

It moves air to and from the exchange surfaces of the lungs.

- Trachea

- Bronchi

Respiratory System

- Bronchioles

- Terminal bronchioles

- Respiratory bronchioles

- Alveolar ducts

- Alveoli

It is involved in gas exchange.


Lesson 12

The Respiratory Mucosa

  • It consists of :

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar, stratified squamous, ciliated simple columnar, simple cuboidal, and simple squamous)

  • An epithelium

  • A layer of areolar connective tissue called the lamina propria

A ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium lines the nasal cavity and most of the conducting system. It is called “respiratory epithelium”.

Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium (respiratory epithelium):

Stem cell

Goblet cell

Ciliated columnar epithelial cell

Mucus layer

Lamina propria

Epithelium


Lesson 12

The Respiratory Defense System

1- Filtration in nasal cavity

2- Tonsils in pharynx

3- The Mucus Escalator

4- Alveolar macrophages

1- Mucus escalator: It is a mechanism that moves the mucus with debris and pathogens to the pharynx to be swallowed.

To the pharynx to be swallowed

Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium:

Goblet cell

Ciliated columnar epithelial cell

Mucus layer

Mucous gland


Lesson 12

Upper Respiratory System

The Nose, Nasal Cavity, and Paranasal Sinuses

1- The Nose

Function: It provides an airway for respiration


Lesson 12

Upper Respiratory System

Frontal

Nasal bones

Superior

Middle

Inferior

Maxilla

Palatine bone

Soft palate

Uvula

2- The Nasal Cavity

Functions: 1- It moistens, warms, filters, and cleanses the air 2- It provides a resonating chamber for speech 3- It houses the olfactory receptors

Nasal conchae

Ethmoid

Meatuses

Superior

Middle

Inferior

Bony or hard palate


Lesson 12

Upper Respiratory System

Nasal Septum:

Vomer

Perpendicular plate of ethmoid

Middle nasal concha

Inferior nasal concha

It divides the nasal cavity in to nasal fossae

Septal cartilage


Lesson 12

Upper Respiratory System

3- The Paranasal Sinuses

Sphenoidal sinuses

Ethmoidal sinuses

Functions: 1- Lighten the skull 2-Warm and moisten the air 3- Resonance chamber for speech

Frontal sinuses

Maxillary sinuses


Lesson 12

Upper Respiratory System

Pharyngeal tonsil

Eustachian or auditory tube

Soft palate

Palatine tonsil

Lingual tonsil

Epiglottis

Uvula

Glottis

The Pharynx

Functions: Air and food passageway

Nasopharynx

(air passageway)

Oropharynx

(food and air passageway)

Laryngopharynx

(food and air passageway)


Lesson 12

Posterior nasal

aperture

Functions: Air and food passageway

Pharynx:

Nasopharynx

It is a passageway for air

It is lined by a pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Oropharynx

Laryngopharynx

It is a passageway for air, food and drink

It is lined by a stratified squamous epithelium

It is a passageway for air, food and drink

Esophagus

It is lined by a stratified squamous epithelium

Larynx

Trachea


Lesson 12

Lower Respiratory System

Larynx

The Larynx

Functions:

- It acts as a switching mechanism to direct air and food to proper duct

- It contains the vocal cords that are necessary for voice production

Air

Food & drink


Lesson 12

Lower Respiratory System

Epiglottis

Epiglottis

Corniculate cartilages

Cuneiform cartilage

Arytenoids cartilages

Posterior view

Lateral view

Anterior view

Cartilages and Ligaments of Larynx

Hyoid bone

It closes the glottis during swallowing, preventing the entry of food into the respiratory tract.

Thyroid cartilage

Cricoid cartilage

Cricoid cartilage

Trachea


Lesson 12

Lower Respiratory System

Vestibular ligaments or false vocal cords

Thyroid cartilage

Arytenoid cartilage

Vocal ligaments or true vocal cords

Vocal Ligaments

They help prevent any object from going into the glottis, and protect the vocal folds.

They vibrate producing sound when air rushed up from the lungs.


Lesson 12

The Trachea

The trachea (windpipe) is a rigid tube about 12 cm (4.5 in.) long and 2.5 cm (1 in.) in diameter.

  • It is found anterior to the esophagus and it is supported by 16 to 20 C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage, which reinforces the trachea and keeps it from collapsing when you inhale.

Trachea

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblets cells.


Lesson 12

Lower Respiratory System

Function: It is an air passageway and cleanses the air.


Lesson 12

Lobes and Surfaces of the Lungs

Lungs are conical organs with a broad, concave base, resting on the diaphragm, and a blunt peak called the apex projecting slightly above the clavicle.

Apex of lung

Superior lobe

Costal surface

Superior lobe

Horizontal fissure

Middle lobe

Mediastinal surface

Inferior lobe

Oblique fissure

Oblique fissure

Inferior lobe

Diaphragmatic surface

Base of lung


Lesson 12

Lower Respiratory System

Right lung

Left lung

Lungs

Horizontal fissure

Superior lobe

Superior lobe

Middle lobe

Lobes

Inferior lobe

Inferior lobe

Oblique fissure

Segments

Superior lobe

Superior lobe

Hilum

Lobules

Middle lobe

Inferior lobe

Inferior lobe

Alveoli


Lesson 12

The Bronchi

All bronchi are lined with ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium.

Thyroid

cartilage

Larynx

  • The lamina propria has an abundance of mucous glands and lymphocyte nodules (bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, BALT) positioned to intercept inhaled pathogens

Cricoid

cartilage

Trachea

Carina

Main bronchi

Superior lobar

bronchus

Superior lobar

bronchus

Middle lobar

bronchus

Inferior lobar

bronchus

Inferior lobar

bronchus

Segmental bronchi

Segmental bronchi

(8 on left)

(10 on right)

Bronchopulmonary segment:

It is a functionally independent unit of the lung tissue


Lesson 12

Left Primary Bronchus

Secondary Bronchi

Tertiary Bronchi

Bronchioles

Terminal Bronchioles

The Bronchioles

Nasal cavity

Pharynx

(lung)

Larynx

Trachea

Primary Bronchus

Secondary Bronchi

(lobes)

Tertiary Bronchi

(segments)

Bronchioles

Terminal Bronchioles

(They lack of cartilage and are dominated by smooth muscle tissue)

Respiratory Bronchioles

Alveolar ducts

(lobules)

Alveoli


Lesson 12

Lower Respiratory System

Pulmonary Lobules

Terminal bronchioles

Bronchiole

(to lobules)

Respiratory bronchiole

(to alveolar sac)

Alveolar duct

(to alveolus)

Alveolar sac

Alveolus

PULMONARY LOBULE


Lesson 12

Lower Respiratory System


Lesson 12

Lower Respiratory System

Alveolar Ducts and Alveoli

Fluid with surfactant

Squamous epithelial cell (pneumocyte type I)

Respiratory membrane

  • They secrete pulmonary surfactant.

Septal cell (pneumocyte Type II)

Capillary endothelial cell

  • They are phagocytic cells that engulf invaders and activate the immune system.

Alveolar

macrophage


Lesson 12

The Respiratory Membrane

Squamous

epithelial cell

(pneumocyte type I)

O2

O2

O2

Respiratory membrane

Fused basal lamina

Capillary endothelial cell

CO2

CO2

CO2


Lesson 12

Lower Respiratory System

Respiratory Membrane


Lesson 12

Epithelium Type Changes in the Respiratory System

Nasal cavity

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Nasopharynx

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Oropharynx

Stratified squamous epithelium

Laringopharynx

Stratified squamous epithelium

Larynx (superior part)

Stratified squamous epithelium

Larynx (inferior part)

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Trachea

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Bronchi

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Bronchioles

Ciliated simple columnar epithelium

Terminal bronchioles

Simple cuboidal epithelium

Alveoli

Simple squamous epithelium (with 5% of round or cuboidal cells (type II alveolar cells)


Lesson 12

Lower Respiratory System

The Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes


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