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CGS 2555 Introduction to the Internet. Instructor:. ARNOLDO HERRERA. Introduction to the Internet and World Wide Web. HISTORY ARPANET 1969 The 1st interconnected network used for the free exchange of information between Universities, the Department of Defense, and Research Organizations

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CGS 2555 Introduction to the Internet

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CGS 2555Introduction to the Internet



Introduction to the Internet and World Wide Web


    • ARPANET 1969

      • The 1st interconnected network used for the free exchange of information between Universities, the Department of Defense, and Research Organizations

      • Purpose: Decentralization - Create a internetwork that could withstand nuclear attacks on the United States.

      • Precursor to the Internet

How the Internet Works and Getting Connected

  • The Internet

    • A large collection of computers all over the world that are connected to one another in various ways.

    • Uses:

      • Email

      • Newsgroups

      • Chat

      • Information

How the Internet Works and Getting Connected cont’d

  • Business (Marketing, Electronic Commerce)

  • Communication

  • Entertainment Activities (Such as games or simulations)

Communication on the Internet


    • Types of Communication

      • Their characteristics

      • Issues involved with using one or another

    • Effective Communication

    • Matters of Etiquette

    • Legal and ethical issues that have developed as a result of these types of communication.

Communication on the Internet cont’d

  • Internet Communication Technologies:

    • Email

    • Usenet

    • Chat groups

  • Information is transmitted in digital format

  • Computer network - connects people without regard for distance

Communication on the Internet cont’d

  • Asynchronous and Synchronous Communication

    • Asynchronous - A message is sent or read without the sender and the recipient participating in the communications simultaneously (ex. Email, email discussion groups, newsgroups [Usenet])

    • Synchronous - All parties are required to be present at the same time. (ex. online chat rooms)

Communication on the Internet cont’d

  • Internet Communication (Asynchronous)

    • Most established internet technologies:

      • Email, email discussion groups and Usenet news

        • used for personal communications

        • business uses

        • exchange of scholarly research

Communication on the Internet cont’d

  • Electronic Mail (email)

    • Email programs are sometimes called an Email Client or Mail User Agent and can send:

      • Text only or

      • Text plus images and attachments

Communication on the Internet cont’d

  • Email Discussion Groups

    • Are also called: Interest Groups, Listservs or Mailing Lists

    • Designed for group communication

    • Communicate by sending email to the address for the group and the message is automatically distributed to everyone in the group

Communication on the Internet cont’d

  • They are a good resource of information

  • Discussion groups focus on professional or research issues while others focus on recreation and deal with personal issues.

Communication on the Internet cont’d

  • Usenet News - A collection of messages called articles grouped into categories called newsgroups.

    • Designed for group communication

    • Multiple numbers of newsgroups are on the Internet with tens of thousands of articles

      • new articles are posted daily

    • Articles are sent from one computer system, acting as a Usenet host, to another.

Communication on the Internet cont’d

  • Newsreader: The tool that an individual uses to read, post, reply to and manage articles.

  • Usenet supports uncensored free speech with little or no central control

Communication on the Internet cont’d

  • Internet Communication (Synchronous)

    • Synchronous Communication on the Internet are like the conversations and meetings we normally have in our daily lives

    • Environment where communication takes place is called:

      • Virtual meeting place, virtual room or a virtual world.

Communication on the Internet cont’d

  • Technologies associated with real-time synchronous communication:

    • Internet Relay Chat (IRC), Chat Rooms, MUDs (multi-user dimensions), MOOs (multi-user dimensions that are object oriented), Virtual Worlds (ex. group role playing games)

  • Several people participate simultaneously

    • Meet on channels, sometimes called “chat rooms”

    • Converse usually through text typed in real-time

Communication on the Internet cont’d

  • Internet Relay Chat (IRC) (non-web based)

    • Chat system developed in the late 1980s

    • Operates using a client/server model

      • IRC client (software) on your computer contacts one of several IRC servers throughout the world. Then connects to a channel or chat area provided by the server.

        • Communication is simultaneous and can get hectic.

        • Whatever one person types is broadcasted to everyone in the channel

        • IRC allows users to set up exclusive conversations

Communication on the Internet cont’d

  • IRC Resources:

    • Learning chat speech, acronyms and symbols



    • Chat help (sources for beginners)



    • Chat software:

Communication on the Internet cont’d

  • Web-based Chat

    • Easier to use than IRC

    • Most major news sources on the Web (ex. and The New York Times) and popular search services (ex. Excite, Go, Lycos, Snap and Yahoo!) provide chat capabilities.

    • There are also Specialized Chat Service Sites.

Communication on the Internet cont’d

  • Web based chats are mostly text-based but some allow you to include image files, audio files and avatars (an icon, image or figure that you can use to represent yourself in chat).

    • Note: Special software may be needed to enable an avatar, and/or use audio or video in the chat

  • Chat groupson the Internet are sometimes called a “virtual community”.

Communication on the Internet cont’d

  • Web-based Chat Resources:





      • Yahoo chat site is very popular!

        • Yahoo has lots of help available

        • We will illustrate how to sign into a Yahoo chat session.

Communication on the Internet cont’d

  • MUDs & MOOs

    • Both represent virtual worlds

      • Partipitants build and maintain relationships and objects

      • Communication is all text-based

Communication on the Internet cont’d

  • MUDS - Multi-user Dungeon (Dimension)

    • First applied to a multi-use role playing game or environment developed in the early 1980s

    • Now term is used as an acronym for any multi-user domain and to describe any of a class of virtual environments based on some theme (ex. a castle or a world) with several participants communicating using (usually) only text in real-time.

Communication on the Internet cont’d

  • Some environments are based on competition or (virtual) combat.

    • More recent versions (ex. TinyMUD) are built around cooperation, world-building, and socialization

  • Participants have a “handle” (a name) and a persona

  • WARNING: MUDs can be addictive and consume a great deal of time

  • MUD resources on the Web:


  • Communication on the Internet cont’d

    • MOOs - MUD Object-Oriented

      • Similar to MUD but the enabling software is written in an object oriented manner.

      • Allows people who are not programmers to develop customized MUDs.

      • Popular with those involved in computer- mediated communications, training, educators and distance learning.

    Communication on the Internet cont’d

    • Internet Instant Messenger and Paging Services

      • Services that let you know when someone else also connects to the same service and permits you to send a message directly to that person.

      • Messages are sent through the service (not by email)

    Communication on the Internet cont’d

    • Popular messenger and paging services:

      • AOL Instant Messenger

      • ICQ (I seek you)

      • Microsoft MSN Messenger Service

    Communication on the Internet cont’d

    • Other Synchronous Communication Technologies:

      • Internet or IP Telephony

        • Similar to an ordinary telephone call but done through the Web

        • Ordinary telephone calls are transmitted in analog format

        • Internet telephony converts conversation into digital format, puts it in packets and transmits the packets across the Internet

          • Long distance calls can be less costly or sometimes FREE!

    Communication on the Internet cont’d

    • Internet Pictures and Video

      • Transmission of digital images over the Internet

      • Some uses:

        • Personal communications, real-time video conferences and educational purposes

      • High speed connections to the Internet are often necessary since video, audio, and images require that a great deal of information be transmitted in a short period of time.

    Communication on the Internet cont’d

    • Effective Internet Communication

      • Write well-thought-out and well expressed messages with relatively short paragraphs.

      • Spelling and punctuation count

      • Use uppercase if you want to state something strongly or surround it with asterisks (*)

        • Uppercase letters is the equivalent to SHOUTING on the Internet

      • Use a subject header that gets the reader’s attention.

    Communication on the Internet cont’d

    • Include the original message or pertinent portions when writing a reply.

    • Keep your message as short as possible and to the point.

    Communication on the Internet cont’d

    • Behavior and Etiquette Guidelines:

      • Do not give out personal information to people you don’t know.

      • Cultural issues:

        • The Internet enables communication with people around the world whose culture and customs you may not be familiar with and they may have different views and values than yours. So, be careful what you write.

      • Don’t assume communication is private.

    Communication on the Internet cont’d

    • Legal and Ethical Issues

      • Privacy Issue

        • Don’t assume privacy on the Internet

          • Internet communication is susceptible to monitoring.

          • Some say that sending email is like sending a message on a postcard.

        • Laws have been enacted to to ensure privacy of email

          • Private messages not allowed to be accessed by government officers or others without legal permission.

    Communication on the Internet cont’d

    • Encryption

      • Putting a message into an unreadable format to prevent others from reading your mail.

      • Only the intended recipient can decode the encrypted message

        • Many messages are encoded by a method called “Public key encryption”

    Communication on the Internet cont’d

    • Abusive and Offensive Email

      • Individuals have been arrested and prosecuted for making threatening remarks by email.

      • Civil suits and charges have been filed against individuals in cases of harassment, abuse, and stalking.

    Communication on the Internet cont’d

    • Libel

      • Libel suits are filed when a company or person feels that another has slandered them or falsely attempted to damage their reputation.

        • Some postings were found on Usenet and other networks that led to libel suits.

      • Spamming - Unsolicited and inappropriate advertising

        • “Junk” email or postings to groups (newsgroups)

        • Slows other traffic on the Internet

        • Definitely annoying and costly to the recipient time wise

    Electronic Mail (Email)

    • How email works

    • Advantages and limitations

    • Email programs and features

    • Email addresses

    • Parts of an email (Headers, Message body,etc)

    • Attachments

    • Using MS Outlook Express

    Email (cont’d)

    • How It Works

      • Email allows communication with other people on the Internet that have an email address.

      • Email programs are called Mail User Agents

        • Act as the go-between for you and computer systems

    Email (cont’d)

    • Message sent across the Internet in pieces called “packets”

      • Not all packets have to travel the same route

        • Packets can arrive at their destination in any order

          • At the destination packets are collected and reassembled in their original order so the email is back in its original form

          • If any packets are missing or contain an error the destination sends a request back to the source asking for the message to be re-sent

      • SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol-the standard protocol used on the Internet to transport email

    Advantages of Email:

    Quick, convenient and nonintrusive

    Letters, notes, files, data and/or reports can be sent via email

    Receiver can open up your email at a time when it is convenient to them

    Sender’s return address is included in each message

    Inexpensive to use.

    Limitations of Email:

    Not necessarily private

    Can be intercepted

    Some email systems are text only

    can’t view images, programs, word processing attachments or multimedia messages

    Forgery is possible

    Through virus activity, etc.

    Email (cont’d)

    Email (cont’d)

    • Email Programs:

      • Email Client: The program you use to work with your email, also called the “mail user agent”

        • Email client works directly with the server

      • Microcomputer Systems Mail Clients:

        • Netscape Messenger, Microsoft Outlook Express

      • Mail clients for text-based mainframe or minicomputer systems

        • Designed mostly for terminals (or virtual terminals) connected to a network or computer

          • Ex. Pine, Elm, Mailx

    Email (cont’d)

    • Web-based email services

      • Email retrieved through a Web browser from a Web page



      • Advantages (of Web-based email services):

        • Can check your email from any location

        • Some web based email services are free

    • Mail systems for proprietary networks

      • Designed originally for for use on private or proprietary networks

        • Ex.: AOL Mail, GroupWise, cc:Mail

    Email (cont’d)

    • Common Features of Email Systems:

      • Read, Delete, File, Print, Save, Compose, Attachments, Signature, Reply, Forward, Mark, Sort, Address Book, Online Help.

        • “File”: Lets you save messages in different folders(pg122)

        • “Save” feature: Allows you to save an email on your hard drive

        • “Attachment” feature: Lets you include various types of files from your computer

        • “Address Book”: Lets you keep a list of email addresses so you don’t have to remember them all

        • “Signature”: (pg 118) Automatically adds information you specify to all outgoing email (ex.: Your name, address)

    Email (cont’d)

    • Email Address Format:

      • [email protected]

        • local-address - is the User’s login name or the User’s name on the server

        • Internet domain-name - the name of the computer system that handles the email for the user

    Email (cont’d)

    • Finding a person’s email address:

      • Not easy since there is no central email directory for all existing email addresses

        • Some web based directories are:




    Email (cont’d)

    • Attachments

      • How to add and view an attachment using a email client designed for microcomputers:

        • Compose the message

        • Click “Attach”

        • Select the file from your computer that you want to attach

        • Click “Send”

    Email (cont’d)

    • Using Microsoft’s Outlook Express for email

      • Use search engine to find additional information

    Email Discussion Groups

    • Overview:

      • Email discussion groups (also called interest groups, mailing lists or listservs) are formed by people with common interests.

        • Groups foster discussions as individuals compose and post messages, answer questions and respond to other people’s statements

        • Discussions are asynchronous and at your convenience

    Email Discussion Groups (cont’d)

    • Essential Information:

      • Groups become virtual communities

      • Fan-out:

        • A single email message is sent to a group, message is distributed automatically and immediately, through email, to all members

      • Fan-in:

        • The receiving of all the messages to the group by an individual in the group

    Email Discussion Groups (cont’d)

    • Features/Concepts:

    Search Engines/Strategies

    • Definition - A software application that searches for words in a document or database.

    • Types of Search Engines

      • Single web site search engines

        • Locate information on only that site (ex. Alta Vista Search Engine software by Alta Vista, Inc.).

      • Search the entire World Wide Web


    Search Engines cont’d






  • All these sites keep databases containing keywords and the URLs where these keywords are located.

  • Search Engines cont’d

    • These search engine web sites do not search the entire web at the time you are requesting information, but only the databases on the search web site.

      • These databases need to be kept up to date in order to be effective.

      • To look for new information on the web to record in their databases, search engine web sites use special software called:

        • Web Crawlers, Spiders or Web Robots

    Search Engines cont’d

    • Web Design Tip:

      • Code your site’s pages properly in order to cooperate with search engines and spiders.

        • Use relative key words in your site that a search engine recognizes

        • Use relative page titles (names)

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