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Rock Layers. Compaction. Happens when pressure is applied to a material (over long periods of time). Cementation. Involves the deposition of a cementing matrix in the pore spaces between the grains of sediment. Before cementation (notice the air spaces). horizontal. Level- like a floor

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Compaction
Compaction

  • Happens when pressure is applied to a material (over long periods of time)


Cementation
Cementation

  • Involves the deposition of a cementing matrix in the pore spaces between the grains of sediment


Before cementation notice the air spaces
Before cementation(notice the air spaces)


Horizontal
horizontal

  • Level- like a floor

  • Not higher on one side or the other


Principle of original horizontality
Principle of Original Horizontality

  • Each new deposit of sediment forms a new horizontal layer on top of the layer below


  • PRINCIPLE OF ORIGINAL HORIZONTALITY

  • • Sedimentary and extrusive igneous rocks are originally laid down in horizontal layers

  • • any change from that is viewed as a disturbance of those layers (something happened later)

  • folding, tilting (occur during mountain-building events, for example)

  • sedimentary and igneous extrusive rocks that are folded or tilted must have first been deposited in horizontal layers before being folded or tilted.

  • 1. layer deposited

  • 2. layer deposited

  • 3. layer deposited

  • 4. all three layers are tilted

Label the above (1-4)


Uniform
Uniform

  • The way things happen today is the same way things have always happened


Uniformitarianism
Uniformitarianism

  • Means that the present is the key to the past




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